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Altered structural brain changes and neurocognitive performance in pediatric HIV

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Pediatric HIV patients often suffer with neurodevelopmental delay and subsequently cognitive impairment. While tissue injury in cortical and subcortical regions in the brain of adult HIV patients has been well reported there is sparse knowledge about these changes in perinatally HIV infected pediatric patients. We analyzed cortical thickness, subcortical volume, structural connectivity, and neurocognitive functions in pediatric HIV patients and compared with those of pediatric healthy controls. With informed consent, 34 perinatally infected pediatric HIV patients and 32 age and gender matched pediatric healthy controls underwent neurocognitive assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a 3 T clinical scanner. Altered cortical thickness, subcortical volumes, and abnormal neuropsychological test scores were observed in pediatric HIV patients. The structural network connectivity analysis depicted lower connection strengths, lower clustering coefficients, and higher path length in pediatric HIV patients than healthy controls. The network betweenness and network hubs in cortico-limbic regions were distorted in pediatric HIV patients. The findings suggest that altered cortical and subcortical structures and regional brain connectivity in pediatric HIV patients may contribute to deficits in their neurocognitive functions. Further, longitudinal studies are required for better understanding of the effect of HIV pathogenesis on brain structural changes throughout the brain development process under standard ART treatment.

No MeSH data available.


Bar plots show the neuropsychological test scores (mean ± SD) in pediatric healthy controls and HIV patients. ⁎ indicates significant difference in the neuropsychological test scores between pediatric healthy controls and HIV patients.
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f0015: Bar plots show the neuropsychological test scores (mean ± SD) in pediatric healthy controls and HIV patients. ⁎ indicates significant difference in the neuropsychological test scores between pediatric healthy controls and HIV patients.

Mentions: Pediatric HIV patients showed significantly lower neuropsychological test scores in closure (p = 0.003), memory (p = 0.01), learning name (p = 0.003), and quantity (p = 0.02) than healthy controls. The neuropsychological test scores in exclusion (p = 0.06), verbal learning (p = 0.32), mazes (p = 0.58), and discs (p = 0.44) were insignificantly lower in pediatric HIV patients than healthy controls (Fig. 3).


Altered structural brain changes and neurocognitive performance in pediatric HIV
Bar plots show the neuropsychological test scores (mean ± SD) in pediatric healthy controls and HIV patients. ⁎ indicates significant difference in the neuropsychological test scores between pediatric healthy controls and HIV patients.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5304232&req=5

f0015: Bar plots show the neuropsychological test scores (mean ± SD) in pediatric healthy controls and HIV patients. ⁎ indicates significant difference in the neuropsychological test scores between pediatric healthy controls and HIV patients.
Mentions: Pediatric HIV patients showed significantly lower neuropsychological test scores in closure (p = 0.003), memory (p = 0.01), learning name (p = 0.003), and quantity (p = 0.02) than healthy controls. The neuropsychological test scores in exclusion (p = 0.06), verbal learning (p = 0.32), mazes (p = 0.58), and discs (p = 0.44) were insignificantly lower in pediatric HIV patients than healthy controls (Fig. 3).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Pediatric HIV patients often suffer with neurodevelopmental delay and subsequently cognitive impairment. While tissue injury in cortical and subcortical regions in the brain of adult HIV patients has been well reported there is sparse knowledge about these changes in perinatally HIV infected pediatric patients. We analyzed cortical thickness, subcortical volume, structural connectivity, and neurocognitive functions in pediatric HIV patients and compared with those of pediatric healthy controls. With informed consent, 34 perinatally infected pediatric HIV patients and 32 age and gender matched pediatric healthy controls underwent neurocognitive assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a 3 T clinical scanner. Altered cortical thickness, subcortical volumes, and abnormal neuropsychological test scores were observed in pediatric HIV patients. The structural network connectivity analysis depicted lower connection strengths, lower clustering coefficients, and higher path length in pediatric HIV patients than healthy controls. The network betweenness and network hubs in cortico-limbic regions were distorted in pediatric HIV patients. The findings suggest that altered cortical and subcortical structures and regional brain connectivity in pediatric HIV patients may contribute to deficits in their neurocognitive functions. Further, longitudinal studies are required for better understanding of the effect of HIV pathogenesis on brain structural changes throughout the brain development process under standard ART treatment.

No MeSH data available.