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Three dimensional printing of calcium sulfate and mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds for improving bone regeneration in vitro and in vivo

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

In the clinic, bone defects resulting from infections, trauma, surgical resection and genetic malformations remain a significant challenge. In the field of bone tissue engineering, three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds are promising for the treatment of bone defects. In this study, calcium sulfate hydrate (CSH)/mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) scaffolds were successfully fabricated using a 3D printing technique, which had a regular and uniform square macroporous structure, high porosity and excellent apatite mineralization ability. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) were cultured on scaffolds to evaluate hBMSC attachment, proliferation and osteogenesis-related gene expression. Critical-sized rat calvarial defects were applied to investigate the effect of CSH/MBG scaffolds on bone regeneration in vivo. The in vitro results showed that CSH/MBG scaffolds stimulated the adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteogenesis-related gene expression of hBMSCs. In vivo results showed that CSH/MBG scaffolds could significantly enhance new bone formation in calvarial defects compared to CSH scaffolds. Thus 3D printed CSH/MBG scaffolds would be promising candidates for promoting bone regeneration.

No MeSH data available.


Micro-CT evaluation and morphometric analysis of calvarial defect bone repair.Representative 3D superficial (A1–D1), interior images (A2–D2) and sagittal images (A3–D3) of calvarial bone defects taken at 8 weeks after scaffold implantation. Morphometric analysis of bone mineral density (BMD) (E) and bone volume/total volume (BV/TV) (F) by micro-CT for each group at 8 weeks post-operation (*indicated significant differences when compared to CSH, P < 0.05).
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f10: Micro-CT evaluation and morphometric analysis of calvarial defect bone repair.Representative 3D superficial (A1–D1), interior images (A2–D2) and sagittal images (A3–D3) of calvarial bone defects taken at 8 weeks after scaffold implantation. Morphometric analysis of bone mineral density (BMD) (E) and bone volume/total volume (BV/TV) (F) by micro-CT for each group at 8 weeks post-operation (*indicated significant differences when compared to CSH, P < 0.05).

Mentions: Micro-CT images showing the 3D morphology and 2D slices of the repaired calvarial bones at week 8 are presented in Fig. 10. Figure 10A1–D2 depicts 3D morphological images of the newly-formed calvarial bones obtained using micro-CT reconstruction. In the sagittal view (Fig. 10A3–D3), little bone growth was observed in the defects in the CSH group. However, the CSH/MBG group showed increased new bone formation, attributable to the incorporation of MBG into CSH scaffolds. The local BMDs were 0.21 ± 0.03 g/cm3 in the CSH/MBG20 group, 0.3 ± 0.03 g/cm3 in the CSH/MBG40 group, and 0.675 ± 0.04 g/cm3 in the CSH/MBG60 group (Fig. 10E), and all of these were significantly different to the CSH group (0.056 ± 0.01 g/cm3) (P < 0.05). Moreover, BV/TV showed the same tendency as the BMD results (Fig. 10F), revealing a significant difference between the CSH/MBG20, CSH/MBG40, and CSH/MBG60 groups and the CSH group (P < 0.05). These results indicate that CSH/MBG scaffolds promote improved bone regeneration compared with CSH scaffolds, consistent with the results of qRT-PCR analysis.


Three dimensional printing of calcium sulfate and mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds for improving bone regeneration in vitro and in vivo
Micro-CT evaluation and morphometric analysis of calvarial defect bone repair.Representative 3D superficial (A1–D1), interior images (A2–D2) and sagittal images (A3–D3) of calvarial bone defects taken at 8 weeks after scaffold implantation. Morphometric analysis of bone mineral density (BMD) (E) and bone volume/total volume (BV/TV) (F) by micro-CT for each group at 8 weeks post-operation (*indicated significant differences when compared to CSH, P < 0.05).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5304193&req=5

f10: Micro-CT evaluation and morphometric analysis of calvarial defect bone repair.Representative 3D superficial (A1–D1), interior images (A2–D2) and sagittal images (A3–D3) of calvarial bone defects taken at 8 weeks after scaffold implantation. Morphometric analysis of bone mineral density (BMD) (E) and bone volume/total volume (BV/TV) (F) by micro-CT for each group at 8 weeks post-operation (*indicated significant differences when compared to CSH, P < 0.05).
Mentions: Micro-CT images showing the 3D morphology and 2D slices of the repaired calvarial bones at week 8 are presented in Fig. 10. Figure 10A1–D2 depicts 3D morphological images of the newly-formed calvarial bones obtained using micro-CT reconstruction. In the sagittal view (Fig. 10A3–D3), little bone growth was observed in the defects in the CSH group. However, the CSH/MBG group showed increased new bone formation, attributable to the incorporation of MBG into CSH scaffolds. The local BMDs were 0.21 ± 0.03 g/cm3 in the CSH/MBG20 group, 0.3 ± 0.03 g/cm3 in the CSH/MBG40 group, and 0.675 ± 0.04 g/cm3 in the CSH/MBG60 group (Fig. 10E), and all of these were significantly different to the CSH group (0.056 ± 0.01 g/cm3) (P < 0.05). Moreover, BV/TV showed the same tendency as the BMD results (Fig. 10F), revealing a significant difference between the CSH/MBG20, CSH/MBG40, and CSH/MBG60 groups and the CSH group (P < 0.05). These results indicate that CSH/MBG scaffolds promote improved bone regeneration compared with CSH scaffolds, consistent with the results of qRT-PCR analysis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

In the clinic, bone defects resulting from infections, trauma, surgical resection and genetic malformations remain a significant challenge. In the field of bone tissue engineering, three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds are promising for the treatment of bone defects. In this study, calcium sulfate hydrate (CSH)/mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) scaffolds were successfully fabricated using a 3D printing technique, which had a regular and uniform square macroporous structure, high porosity and excellent apatite mineralization ability. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) were cultured on scaffolds to evaluate hBMSC attachment, proliferation and osteogenesis-related gene expression. Critical-sized rat calvarial defects were applied to investigate the effect of CSH/MBG scaffolds on bone regeneration in vivo. The in vitro results showed that CSH/MBG scaffolds stimulated the adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteogenesis-related gene expression of hBMSCs. In vivo results showed that CSH/MBG scaffolds could significantly enhance new bone formation in calvarial defects compared to CSH scaffolds. Thus 3D printed CSH/MBG scaffolds would be promising candidates for promoting bone regeneration.

No MeSH data available.