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Three dimensional printing of calcium sulfate and mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds for improving bone regeneration in vitro and in vivo

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

In the clinic, bone defects resulting from infections, trauma, surgical resection and genetic malformations remain a significant challenge. In the field of bone tissue engineering, three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds are promising for the treatment of bone defects. In this study, calcium sulfate hydrate (CSH)/mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) scaffolds were successfully fabricated using a 3D printing technique, which had a regular and uniform square macroporous structure, high porosity and excellent apatite mineralization ability. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) were cultured on scaffolds to evaluate hBMSC attachment, proliferation and osteogenesis-related gene expression. Critical-sized rat calvarial defects were applied to investigate the effect of CSH/MBG scaffolds on bone regeneration in vivo. The in vitro results showed that CSH/MBG scaffolds stimulated the adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteogenesis-related gene expression of hBMSCs. In vivo results showed that CSH/MBG scaffolds could significantly enhance new bone formation in calvarial defects compared to CSH scaffolds. Thus 3D printed CSH/MBG scaffolds would be promising candidates for promoting bone regeneration.

No MeSH data available.


(A) N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms and the corresponding pore size distribution of MBG; (B) TEM image of MBG.
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f1: (A) N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms and the corresponding pore size distribution of MBG; (B) TEM image of MBG.

Mentions: Figure 1A shows the N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm of MBG powder and the corresponding pore size distribution. The type IV isotherm with a hysteresis type H1 hysteresis loop (Fig. 1A1) was similar to that previously reported for mesoporous 58S bioactive glasses, revealing the P6 mm mesoporous structure of MBG powder3132. The BET surface area and the single point total volume at P/P0 = 0.99 for MBG powder were 356 m2/g and 0.38 cm3/g, respectively. Figure 1A2 shows the pore size distribution curve of MBG, which was calculated from the desorption branches using the BJH model. The peak pore size was 3.94 nm. TEM observation showed that MBG powder contains highly ordered mesoporous channels (Fig. 1B), as previously reported for 58S bioactive glasses31. Figure 2 shows the XRD patterns of CSH/MBG scaffolds before and after incubation at 37 °C with 100% humidity for 3 days. Before incubation, peaks of CSH were observed in all samples (Fig. 2A), while after incubation peaks of CSD appeared in all the samples (Fig. 2B), indicating the incomplete hydration of CSH crystals following reaction with water. Because of the incomplete transformation of CSH to CSD, a hardening process occurred during incubation.


Three dimensional printing of calcium sulfate and mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds for improving bone regeneration in vitro and in vivo
(A) N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms and the corresponding pore size distribution of MBG; (B) TEM image of MBG.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5304193&req=5

f1: (A) N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms and the corresponding pore size distribution of MBG; (B) TEM image of MBG.
Mentions: Figure 1A shows the N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm of MBG powder and the corresponding pore size distribution. The type IV isotherm with a hysteresis type H1 hysteresis loop (Fig. 1A1) was similar to that previously reported for mesoporous 58S bioactive glasses, revealing the P6 mm mesoporous structure of MBG powder3132. The BET surface area and the single point total volume at P/P0 = 0.99 for MBG powder were 356 m2/g and 0.38 cm3/g, respectively. Figure 1A2 shows the pore size distribution curve of MBG, which was calculated from the desorption branches using the BJH model. The peak pore size was 3.94 nm. TEM observation showed that MBG powder contains highly ordered mesoporous channels (Fig. 1B), as previously reported for 58S bioactive glasses31. Figure 2 shows the XRD patterns of CSH/MBG scaffolds before and after incubation at 37 °C with 100% humidity for 3 days. Before incubation, peaks of CSH were observed in all samples (Fig. 2A), while after incubation peaks of CSD appeared in all the samples (Fig. 2B), indicating the incomplete hydration of CSH crystals following reaction with water. Because of the incomplete transformation of CSH to CSD, a hardening process occurred during incubation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

In the clinic, bone defects resulting from infections, trauma, surgical resection and genetic malformations remain a significant challenge. In the field of bone tissue engineering, three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds are promising for the treatment of bone defects. In this study, calcium sulfate hydrate (CSH)/mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) scaffolds were successfully fabricated using a 3D printing technique, which had a regular and uniform square macroporous structure, high porosity and excellent apatite mineralization ability. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) were cultured on scaffolds to evaluate hBMSC attachment, proliferation and osteogenesis-related gene expression. Critical-sized rat calvarial defects were applied to investigate the effect of CSH/MBG scaffolds on bone regeneration in vivo. The in vitro results showed that CSH/MBG scaffolds stimulated the adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteogenesis-related gene expression of hBMSCs. In vivo results showed that CSH/MBG scaffolds could significantly enhance new bone formation in calvarial defects compared to CSH scaffolds. Thus 3D printed CSH/MBG scaffolds would be promising candidates for promoting bone regeneration.

No MeSH data available.