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Pitfalls of invasive blood pressure monitoring using the caudal ventral artery in rats

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

During rodent experiments, the caudal ventral artery (CVA) is useful for blood pressure (BP) measurement. However, CVA measurements may not reflect the true BP. This study was performed to verify the site-specific accuracy of invasive arterial BP monitoring during surgery in rats. Invasive arterial BP was simultaneously measured in rats via the CVA and the common carotid artery (CCA). The BP values were analysed while the rats were subjected to cooling of the head or tail. Additionally, the rats underwent digital subtraction angiography and histological examination of these arteries. The pressure difference was more significant in the tail cooling group than in the head cooling group. Digital subtraction angiography revealed that angiospasms occurred more frequently in the CVA than in the CCA upon cooling. This phenomenon was supported by histological analysis, which showed that the tunica media area was significantly larger in the CVA than in the CCA. CVA pressure is susceptible to environmental changes and may not accurately reflect the true BP without a strictly controlled laboratory environment. Therefore, understanding the pitfalls of this method is necessary to avoid cooling of the tail during BP measurement.

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Comparison of systolic pressure discrepancies under various conditions.The differences in systolic ABP measured in the HwTw (both head and tail kept warm), HcTw (head cool, tail warm), HwTc (head warm, tail cool), and bleeding groups were 10.8 ± 7.42 mmHg, 14.0 ± 13.7 mmHg, 25.2 ± 20.2 mmHg, and 22.9 ± 13.8 mmHg, respectively. Although no significant difference was observed in the discrepancies between the HwTw and HcTw groups, a significant difference in pressure discrepancies was found between the HwTw and HwTc groups (P = 0.0004). Similarly, a significant difference was observed between the HwTw and bleeding groups (P < 0.0001). x-axis: time (minutes), y-axis: differences in systolic arterial blood pressure (mmHg), CCA: common carotid artery, CVA: caudal ventral artery.
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f2: Comparison of systolic pressure discrepancies under various conditions.The differences in systolic ABP measured in the HwTw (both head and tail kept warm), HcTw (head cool, tail warm), HwTc (head warm, tail cool), and bleeding groups were 10.8 ± 7.42 mmHg, 14.0 ± 13.7 mmHg, 25.2 ± 20.2 mmHg, and 22.9 ± 13.8 mmHg, respectively. Although no significant difference was observed in the discrepancies between the HwTw and HcTw groups, a significant difference in pressure discrepancies was found between the HwTw and HwTc groups (P = 0.0004). Similarly, a significant difference was observed between the HwTw and bleeding groups (P < 0.0001). x-axis: time (minutes), y-axis: differences in systolic arterial blood pressure (mmHg), CCA: common carotid artery, CVA: caudal ventral artery.

Mentions: The time course showed differences in the systolic ABP between the HwTw, HcTw, HwTc, and bleeding groups (Fig. 2). The BP values were clearly different between the four situations. A significant difference in pressure discrepancy was observed between the HwTw and HwTc groups (P = 0.0004). The pressure discrepancy was larger in the bleeding group than in the normovolemic (HwTw) group (P < 0.0001). The pressure discrepancy was evaluated under haemorrhagic shock conditions because this condition could easily cause the peripheral arteries to collapse. The temperature maintained (HwTw) group, the head cooling (HcTw) group, and bleeding group showed less variation regardless of the time course (Supplemental Fig. 1). In contrast, the tail cooling (HwTc) group exhibited considerable variation (Fig. 3). Overall, significant differences were observed between the HwTw and HwTc groups at almost all time points. Tail cooling could also easily cause the tail artery to collapse.


Pitfalls of invasive blood pressure monitoring using the caudal ventral artery in rats
Comparison of systolic pressure discrepancies under various conditions.The differences in systolic ABP measured in the HwTw (both head and tail kept warm), HcTw (head cool, tail warm), HwTc (head warm, tail cool), and bleeding groups were 10.8 ± 7.42 mmHg, 14.0 ± 13.7 mmHg, 25.2 ± 20.2 mmHg, and 22.9 ± 13.8 mmHg, respectively. Although no significant difference was observed in the discrepancies between the HwTw and HcTw groups, a significant difference in pressure discrepancies was found between the HwTw and HwTc groups (P = 0.0004). Similarly, a significant difference was observed between the HwTw and bleeding groups (P < 0.0001). x-axis: time (minutes), y-axis: differences in systolic arterial blood pressure (mmHg), CCA: common carotid artery, CVA: caudal ventral artery.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5304151&req=5

f2: Comparison of systolic pressure discrepancies under various conditions.The differences in systolic ABP measured in the HwTw (both head and tail kept warm), HcTw (head cool, tail warm), HwTc (head warm, tail cool), and bleeding groups were 10.8 ± 7.42 mmHg, 14.0 ± 13.7 mmHg, 25.2 ± 20.2 mmHg, and 22.9 ± 13.8 mmHg, respectively. Although no significant difference was observed in the discrepancies between the HwTw and HcTw groups, a significant difference in pressure discrepancies was found between the HwTw and HwTc groups (P = 0.0004). Similarly, a significant difference was observed between the HwTw and bleeding groups (P < 0.0001). x-axis: time (minutes), y-axis: differences in systolic arterial blood pressure (mmHg), CCA: common carotid artery, CVA: caudal ventral artery.
Mentions: The time course showed differences in the systolic ABP between the HwTw, HcTw, HwTc, and bleeding groups (Fig. 2). The BP values were clearly different between the four situations. A significant difference in pressure discrepancy was observed between the HwTw and HwTc groups (P = 0.0004). The pressure discrepancy was larger in the bleeding group than in the normovolemic (HwTw) group (P < 0.0001). The pressure discrepancy was evaluated under haemorrhagic shock conditions because this condition could easily cause the peripheral arteries to collapse. The temperature maintained (HwTw) group, the head cooling (HcTw) group, and bleeding group showed less variation regardless of the time course (Supplemental Fig. 1). In contrast, the tail cooling (HwTc) group exhibited considerable variation (Fig. 3). Overall, significant differences were observed between the HwTw and HwTc groups at almost all time points. Tail cooling could also easily cause the tail artery to collapse.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

During rodent experiments, the caudal ventral artery (CVA) is useful for blood pressure (BP) measurement. However, CVA measurements may not reflect the true BP. This study was performed to verify the site-specific accuracy of invasive arterial BP monitoring during surgery in rats. Invasive arterial BP was simultaneously measured in rats via the CVA and the common carotid artery (CCA). The BP values were analysed while the rats were subjected to cooling of the head or tail. Additionally, the rats underwent digital subtraction angiography and histological examination of these arteries. The pressure difference was more significant in the tail cooling group than in the head cooling group. Digital subtraction angiography revealed that angiospasms occurred more frequently in the CVA than in the CCA upon cooling. This phenomenon was supported by histological analysis, which showed that the tunica media area was significantly larger in the CVA than in the CCA. CVA pressure is susceptible to environmental changes and may not accurately reflect the true BP without a strictly controlled laboratory environment. Therefore, understanding the pitfalls of this method is necessary to avoid cooling of the tail during BP measurement.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus