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Adapting and Evaluating a Rapid, Low-Cost Method to Enumerate Flies in the Household Setting

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ABSTRACT

Diarrhea is a leading cause of death among children under 5 years of age worldwide. Flies are important vectors of diarrheal pathogens in settings lacking networked sanitation services. There is no standardized method for measuring fly density in households; many methods are cumbersome and unvalidated. We adapted a rapid, low-cost fly enumeration technique previously developed for industrial settings, the Scudder fly grill, for field use in household settings. We evaluated its performance in comparison to a sticky tape fly trapping method at latrine and food preparation areas among households in rural Kenya. The grill method was more sensitive; it detected the presence of any flies at 80% (433/543) of sampling locations versus 64% (348/543) of locations by the sticky tape. We found poor concordance between the two methods, suggesting that standardizing protocols is important for comparison of fly densities between studies. Fly species identification was feasible with both methods; however, the sticky tape trap allowed for more nuanced identification. Both methods detected a greater presence of bottle flies near latrines compared with food preparation areas (P < 0.01). The grill method detected more flies at the food preparation area compared with near the latrine (P = 0.014) while the sticky tape method detected no difference. We recommend the Scudder grill as a sensitive fly enumeration tool that is rapid and low cost to implement.

No MeSH data available.


Percentage of fly species identified at each area measured by the sticky tape method.
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fig3: Percentage of fly species identified at each area measured by the sticky tape method.

Mentions: For each fly species category, neither method detected flies of that species at a greater proportion of households at each site (Table 4). However, at 11% of food areas and 24% of latrines, the species of flies observed using the grill method could not be identified due to limited observation time. The grill method detected houseflies at a larger proportion of food areas than latrine areas (P = 0.002) but did not detect a difference in proportions of bottle or flesh flies at latrine areas (Supplemental Figure 2). The tape method did not detect bottle or flesh flies at a significantly different proportion of food versus latrine areas, but did detect more houseflies at the food area (P = 0.003). When we compared the total number of flies of each fly category counted on the tape (Figure 3Figure 3.


Adapting and Evaluating a Rapid, Low-Cost Method to Enumerate Flies in the Household Setting
Percentage of fly species identified at each area measured by the sticky tape method.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5303052&req=5

fig3: Percentage of fly species identified at each area measured by the sticky tape method.
Mentions: For each fly species category, neither method detected flies of that species at a greater proportion of households at each site (Table 4). However, at 11% of food areas and 24% of latrines, the species of flies observed using the grill method could not be identified due to limited observation time. The grill method detected houseflies at a larger proportion of food areas than latrine areas (P = 0.002) but did not detect a difference in proportions of bottle or flesh flies at latrine areas (Supplemental Figure 2). The tape method did not detect bottle or flesh flies at a significantly different proportion of food versus latrine areas, but did detect more houseflies at the food area (P = 0.003). When we compared the total number of flies of each fly category counted on the tape (Figure 3Figure 3.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Diarrhea is a leading cause of death among children under 5 years of age worldwide. Flies are important vectors of diarrheal pathogens in settings lacking networked sanitation services. There is no standardized method for measuring fly density in households; many methods are cumbersome and unvalidated. We adapted a rapid, low-cost fly enumeration technique previously developed for industrial settings, the Scudder fly grill, for field use in household settings. We evaluated its performance in comparison to a sticky tape fly trapping method at latrine and food preparation areas among households in rural Kenya. The grill method was more sensitive; it detected the presence of any flies at 80% (433/543) of sampling locations versus 64% (348/543) of locations by the sticky tape. We found poor concordance between the two methods, suggesting that standardizing protocols is important for comparison of fly densities between studies. Fly species identification was feasible with both methods; however, the sticky tape trap allowed for more nuanced identification. Both methods detected a greater presence of bottle flies near latrines compared with food preparation areas (P < 0.01). The grill method detected more flies at the food preparation area compared with near the latrine (P = 0.014) while the sticky tape method detected no difference. We recommend the Scudder grill as a sensitive fly enumeration tool that is rapid and low cost to implement.

No MeSH data available.