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Re-assessing gallium-67 as a therapeutic radionuclide ☆

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Despite its desirable half-life and low energy Auger electrons that travel further than for other radionuclides, 67Ga has been neglected as a therapeutic radionuclide. Here, 67Ga is compared with Auger electron emitter 111In as a potential therapeutic radionuclide.

Methods: Plasmid pBR322 studies allowed direct comparison between 67Ga and 111In (1 MBq) in causing DNA damage, including the effect of chelators (EDTA and DTPA) and the effects of a free radical scavenger (DMSO). The cytotoxicity of internalized (by means of delivery in the form of oxine complexes) and non-internalized 67Ga and 111In was measured in DU145 prostate cancer cells after a one-hour incubation using cell viability (trypan blue) and clonogenic studies. MDA-MB-231 and HCC1954 cells were also used.

Results: Plasmid DNA damage was caused by 67Ga and was comparable to that caused by 111In; it was reduced in the presence of EDTA, DTPA and DMSO. The A50 values (internalized activity of oxine complexes per cell required to kill 50% of cells) as determined by trypan blue staining was 1.0 Bq/cell for both 67Ga and 111In; the A50 values determined by clonogenic assay were 0.7 Bq/cell and 0.3 Bq/cell for 111In and 67Ga respectively. At the concentrations required to achieve these uptake levels, non-internalized 67Ga and 111In caused no cellular toxicity. Qualitatively similar results were found for MDA-MB-231 and HCC1954 cells.

Conclusion: 67Ga causes as much damage as 111In to plasmid DNA in solution and shows similar toxicity as 111In at equivalent internalized activity per cell. 67Ga therefore deserves further evaluation for radionuclide therapy.

Advances in knowledge and implications for patient care: The data presented here is at the basic level of science. If future in vivo and clinical studies are successful, 67Ga could become a useful radionuclide with little healthy tissue toxicity in the arsenal of weapons for treating cancer.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A: Representative image of pBR322 on an agarose gel following treatment with a radionuclide. Here, pBR322 was incubated with 1 MBq 111In-chloride (111In-Cl3 or as external radiation (111In (external)) for 72 h in the presence or absence of DMSO or cold indium chloride (InCl3). B and C: Fraction of supercoiled (undamaged) plasmid, as measured from gels such as A. Plasmids were incubated with either 111InCl3 (B) or 67GaCl3 (C). Data points are average ± standard deviation (SD; n = 2–3). Relaxed bands represent single strand breaks; linear bands are double strand breaks.
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f0005: A: Representative image of pBR322 on an agarose gel following treatment with a radionuclide. Here, pBR322 was incubated with 1 MBq 111In-chloride (111In-Cl3 or as external radiation (111In (external)) for 72 h in the presence or absence of DMSO or cold indium chloride (InCl3). B and C: Fraction of supercoiled (undamaged) plasmid, as measured from gels such as A. Plasmids were incubated with either 111InCl3 (B) or 67GaCl3 (C). Data points are average ± standard deviation (SD; n = 2–3). Relaxed bands represent single strand breaks; linear bands are double strand breaks.

Mentions: Images were analyzed by densitometry of each plasmid band (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, S1–3; supercoiled, circular and linear; Image J 1.48, NIH, USA). Background was measured and subtracted from band intensity. The fraction of supercoiled plasmid (undamaged) of total plasmid represents undamaged plasmid.


Re-assessing gallium-67 as a therapeutic radionuclide ☆
A: Representative image of pBR322 on an agarose gel following treatment with a radionuclide. Here, pBR322 was incubated with 1 MBq 111In-chloride (111In-Cl3 or as external radiation (111In (external)) for 72 h in the presence or absence of DMSO or cold indium chloride (InCl3). B and C: Fraction of supercoiled (undamaged) plasmid, as measured from gels such as A. Plasmids were incubated with either 111InCl3 (B) or 67GaCl3 (C). Data points are average ± standard deviation (SD; n = 2–3). Relaxed bands represent single strand breaks; linear bands are double strand breaks.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5303015&req=5

f0005: A: Representative image of pBR322 on an agarose gel following treatment with a radionuclide. Here, pBR322 was incubated with 1 MBq 111In-chloride (111In-Cl3 or as external radiation (111In (external)) for 72 h in the presence or absence of DMSO or cold indium chloride (InCl3). B and C: Fraction of supercoiled (undamaged) plasmid, as measured from gels such as A. Plasmids were incubated with either 111InCl3 (B) or 67GaCl3 (C). Data points are average ± standard deviation (SD; n = 2–3). Relaxed bands represent single strand breaks; linear bands are double strand breaks.
Mentions: Images were analyzed by densitometry of each plasmid band (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, S1–3; supercoiled, circular and linear; Image J 1.48, NIH, USA). Background was measured and subtracted from band intensity. The fraction of supercoiled plasmid (undamaged) of total plasmid represents undamaged plasmid.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Despite its desirable half-life and low energy Auger electrons that travel further than for other radionuclides, 67Ga has been neglected as a therapeutic radionuclide. Here, 67Ga is compared with Auger electron emitter 111In as a potential therapeutic radionuclide.

Methods: Plasmid pBR322 studies allowed direct comparison between 67Ga and 111In (1 MBq) in causing DNA damage, including the effect of chelators (EDTA and DTPA) and the effects of a free radical scavenger (DMSO). The cytotoxicity of internalized (by means of delivery in the form of oxine complexes) and non-internalized 67Ga and 111In was measured in DU145 prostate cancer cells after a one-hour incubation using cell viability (trypan blue) and clonogenic studies. MDA-MB-231 and HCC1954 cells were also used.

Results: Plasmid DNA damage was caused by 67Ga and was comparable to that caused by 111In; it was reduced in the presence of EDTA, DTPA and DMSO. The A50 values (internalized activity of oxine complexes per cell required to kill 50% of cells) as determined by trypan blue staining was 1.0 Bq/cell for both 67Ga and 111In; the A50 values determined by clonogenic assay were 0.7 Bq/cell and 0.3 Bq/cell for 111In and 67Ga respectively. At the concentrations required to achieve these uptake levels, non-internalized 67Ga and 111In caused no cellular toxicity. Qualitatively similar results were found for MDA-MB-231 and HCC1954 cells.

Conclusion: 67Ga causes as much damage as 111In to plasmid DNA in solution and shows similar toxicity as 111In at equivalent internalized activity per cell. 67Ga therefore deserves further evaluation for radionuclide therapy.

Advances in knowledge and implications for patient care: The data presented here is at the basic level of science. If future in vivo and clinical studies are successful, 67Ga could become a useful radionuclide with little healthy tissue toxicity in the arsenal of weapons for treating cancer.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus