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Composition and biological activities of the aqueous extracts of three scleractinian corals from the Mexican Caribbean: Pseudodiploria strigosa , Porites astreoides and Siderastrea siderea

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ABSTRACT

Background: Scleractinian corals (stony corals) are the most abundant reef-forming cnidarians found in coral reefs throughout the world. Despite their abundance and ecological importance, information about the diversity of their toxins and their biological activities is very scarce. In this study, the chemical composition and the biological activities of the aqueous extracts of Pseudodiploria strigosa, Porites astreoides and Siderastrea siderea, three scleractinian corals from the Mexican Caribbean, have been assessed for the first time.

Methods: Toxicity of the extracts was assessed in crickets; the presence of cytolysins was detected by the hemolysis assay; the vasoconstrictor activity was determined by the isolated rat aortic ring assay; the nociceptive activity was evaluated by the formalin test. The presence of phospholipases A2 (PLA2), serine proteases, and hyaluronidases was determined by enzymatic methods. Low-molecular-weight fractions were obtained by gel filtration chromatography and ultrafiltration.

Results: Extracts from the three species were toxic to crickets, induced hemolysis in human and rat erythrocytes, produced vasoconstriction on isolated rat aortic rings, and presented phospholipase A2 and serine-protease activity. Despite the fact that these corals are not considered to be harmless to humans, the extracts generated significant nociceptive responses. The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis of the low-molecular-weight fractions revealed the presence of peptides within a mass range of 3000 to 6000 Da. These fractions were toxic to crickets and two of them induced a transitory vasoconstrictor effect on isolated rat aortic rings.

Conclusion: This study suggests that scleractinian corals produce low-molecular-weight peptides that are lethal to crickets and induce vasoconstriction.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Toxicity of the extracts to crickets (A. domestica). Log-dose response curves at (a) 24 h and (b) 48 h post-injection
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Fig1: Toxicity of the extracts to crickets (A. domestica). Log-dose response curves at (a) 24 h and (b) 48 h post-injection

Mentions: The insecticidal activity results showed that all extracts were lethal to crickets with similar potency and their lethality did not increase significantly with time. It is important to mention that the potency of the S. siderea extract appeared to increase with time; however, the ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test did not show significant differences. Figure 1 shows the dose-response curves while Table 1 displays the LD50 values. The extracts did not induce immediate paralysis, but at higher concentrations motility was gradually reduced.Fig. 1


Composition and biological activities of the aqueous extracts of three scleractinian corals from the Mexican Caribbean: Pseudodiploria strigosa , Porites astreoides and Siderastrea siderea
Toxicity of the extracts to crickets (A. domestica). Log-dose response curves at (a) 24 h and (b) 48 h post-injection
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5121987&req=5

Fig1: Toxicity of the extracts to crickets (A. domestica). Log-dose response curves at (a) 24 h and (b) 48 h post-injection
Mentions: The insecticidal activity results showed that all extracts were lethal to crickets with similar potency and their lethality did not increase significantly with time. It is important to mention that the potency of the S. siderea extract appeared to increase with time; however, the ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test did not show significant differences. Figure 1 shows the dose-response curves while Table 1 displays the LD50 values. The extracts did not induce immediate paralysis, but at higher concentrations motility was gradually reduced.Fig. 1

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Scleractinian corals (stony corals) are the most abundant reef-forming cnidarians found in coral reefs throughout the world. Despite their abundance and ecological importance, information about the diversity of their toxins and their biological activities is very scarce. In this study, the chemical composition and the biological activities of the aqueous extracts of Pseudodiploria strigosa, Porites astreoides and Siderastrea siderea, three scleractinian corals from the Mexican Caribbean, have been assessed for the first time.

Methods: Toxicity of the extracts was assessed in crickets; the presence of cytolysins was detected by the hemolysis assay; the vasoconstrictor activity was determined by the isolated rat aortic ring assay; the nociceptive activity was evaluated by the formalin test. The presence of phospholipases A2 (PLA2), serine proteases, and hyaluronidases was determined by enzymatic methods. Low-molecular-weight fractions were obtained by gel filtration chromatography and ultrafiltration.

Results: Extracts from the three species were toxic to crickets, induced hemolysis in human and rat erythrocytes, produced vasoconstriction on isolated rat aortic rings, and presented phospholipase A2 and serine-protease activity. Despite the fact that these corals are not considered to be harmless to humans, the extracts generated significant nociceptive responses. The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis of the low-molecular-weight fractions revealed the presence of peptides within a mass range of 3000 to 6000 Da. These fractions were toxic to crickets and two of them induced a transitory vasoconstrictor effect on isolated rat aortic rings.

Conclusion: This study suggests that scleractinian corals produce low-molecular-weight peptides that are lethal to crickets and induce vasoconstriction.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus