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Exercise training attenuates renovascular hypertension partly via RAS- ROS- glutamate pathway in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus

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ABSTRACT

Exercise training (ExT) has been reported to benefit hypertension; however, the exact mechanisms involved are unclear. We hypothesized that ExT attenuates hypertension, in part, through the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and glutamate in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) renovascular hypertensive rats were assigned to sedentary (Sed) or treadmill running groups for eight weeks. Dizocilpine (MK801), a glutamate receptor blocker, or losartan (Los), an angiotensin II type1 receptor (AT1-R) blocker, were microinjected into the PVN at the end of the experiment. We found that 2K1C rats had higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). These rats also had excessive oxidative stress and overactivated RAS in PVN. Eight weeks of ExT significantly decreased MAP and RSNA in 2K1C hypertensive rats. ExT inhibited angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), AT1-R, and glutamate in the PVN, and angiotensin II (ANG II) in the plasma. Moreover, ExT attenuated ROS by augmenting copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) and decreasing p47phox and gp91phox in the PVN. MK801or Los significantly decreased blood pressure in rats. Together, these findings suggest that the beneficial effects of ExT on renovascular hypertension may be, in part, through the RAS-ROS-glutamate pathway in the PVN.

No MeSH data available.


Effects of exercise training on the levels of glutamate in the PVN in 2K1C rats.2K1C rats had higher levels of glutamate in the PVN compare with SHAM rats. ExT attenuated the level of glutamate compared with 2K1C + Sed rats. PVN: hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus; 2K1C: two-kidney, one-clip; ExT: exercise training; Sed: sedentary. Values are expressed as means ± SE. *P < 0.05 vs SHAM groups (SHAM + Sed or SHAM + ExT); †P < 0.05 2K1C + ExT vs 2K1C + Sed.
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f9: Effects of exercise training on the levels of glutamate in the PVN in 2K1C rats.2K1C rats had higher levels of glutamate in the PVN compare with SHAM rats. ExT attenuated the level of glutamate compared with 2K1C + Sed rats. PVN: hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus; 2K1C: two-kidney, one-clip; ExT: exercise training; Sed: sedentary. Values are expressed as means ± SE. *P < 0.05 vs SHAM groups (SHAM + Sed or SHAM + ExT); †P < 0.05 2K1C + ExT vs 2K1C + Sed.

Mentions: We measured glutamate, a vital excitatory neurotransmitter, in the PVN by HPLC. These results revealed that 2K1C rats had higher levels of glutamate in the PVN compared with SHAM rats. This suggests that increased glutamate in the PVN contributes to elevated levels of blood pressure in renovascular hypertension. ExT attenuated the level of glutamate in the PVN compared with that in SHAM rats (Fig. 9). This suggests that ExT significantly decreases the level of glutamate in the PVN in renovascular hypertensive rats.


Exercise training attenuates renovascular hypertension partly via RAS- ROS- glutamate pathway in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus
Effects of exercise training on the levels of glutamate in the PVN in 2K1C rats.2K1C rats had higher levels of glutamate in the PVN compare with SHAM rats. ExT attenuated the level of glutamate compared with 2K1C + Sed rats. PVN: hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus; 2K1C: two-kidney, one-clip; ExT: exercise training; Sed: sedentary. Values are expressed as means ± SE. *P < 0.05 vs SHAM groups (SHAM + Sed or SHAM + ExT); †P < 0.05 2K1C + ExT vs 2K1C + Sed.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5121597&req=5

f9: Effects of exercise training on the levels of glutamate in the PVN in 2K1C rats.2K1C rats had higher levels of glutamate in the PVN compare with SHAM rats. ExT attenuated the level of glutamate compared with 2K1C + Sed rats. PVN: hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus; 2K1C: two-kidney, one-clip; ExT: exercise training; Sed: sedentary. Values are expressed as means ± SE. *P < 0.05 vs SHAM groups (SHAM + Sed or SHAM + ExT); †P < 0.05 2K1C + ExT vs 2K1C + Sed.
Mentions: We measured glutamate, a vital excitatory neurotransmitter, in the PVN by HPLC. These results revealed that 2K1C rats had higher levels of glutamate in the PVN compared with SHAM rats. This suggests that increased glutamate in the PVN contributes to elevated levels of blood pressure in renovascular hypertension. ExT attenuated the level of glutamate in the PVN compared with that in SHAM rats (Fig. 9). This suggests that ExT significantly decreases the level of glutamate in the PVN in renovascular hypertensive rats.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Exercise training (ExT) has been reported to benefit hypertension; however, the exact mechanisms involved are unclear. We hypothesized that ExT attenuates hypertension, in part, through the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and glutamate in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) renovascular hypertensive rats were assigned to sedentary (Sed) or treadmill running groups for eight weeks. Dizocilpine (MK801), a glutamate receptor blocker, or losartan (Los), an angiotensin II type1 receptor (AT1-R) blocker, were microinjected into the PVN at the end of the experiment. We found that 2K1C rats had higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). These rats also had excessive oxidative stress and overactivated RAS in PVN. Eight weeks of ExT significantly decreased MAP and RSNA in 2K1C hypertensive rats. ExT inhibited angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), AT1-R, and glutamate in the PVN, and angiotensin II (ANG II) in the plasma. Moreover, ExT attenuated ROS by augmenting copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) and decreasing p47phox and gp91phox in the PVN. MK801or Los significantly decreased blood pressure in rats. Together, these findings suggest that the beneficial effects of ExT on renovascular hypertension may be, in part, through the RAS-ROS-glutamate pathway in the PVN.

No MeSH data available.