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Two novel viruses associated with the Apis mellifera pathogenic mite Varroa destructor

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ABSTRACT

Varroa destructor infestation of Apis mellifera colonies carries and/or promotes replication of honey bee viruses like the Deformed wing virus, the Varroa destructor virus-1, the Acute bee paralysis virus, the Israeli acute bee paralysis virus and the Kashmir bee virus that have been well described and characterized; but viruses exclusively associated with Varroa were not found. To look for viruses that may associate with- or infect V. destructor we performed deep sequencing (RNA-seq) of RNA extracted from honey bees and mites in Varroa-infested untreated colonies. Comparative bioinformatic analysis of the two separate contig-assemblies generated from the sequences’ reads annotated using Blastx enabled identification of new viruses unique to Varroa and absent in A. mellifera: an Iflavirus and a virus with homology to Ixodes scapularis associated virus 2, that we named Varroa destructor virus 2 (VDV-2) and 3(VDV-3), respectively. We validated these findings sequencing the mite- and honey bee-viromes and in separate mites and honey bees randomly sampled. The complete genomes of VDV-2 and VDV-3 bear 9576 nucleotides and 4202 nucleotides, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of VDV-3 suggests that it belongs to a new group of viruses. Our results open venues for investigating the pathogenicity of these V. destructor viruses.

No MeSH data available.


Genomic organization of VDV2 and VDV-3 (A and B, respectively). Nucleotide lengths are indicated on the left. Yellow arrows: predicted open reading frames (ORF) with their amino acid length. Colored boxes: identified protein motifs.
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f2: Genomic organization of VDV2 and VDV-3 (A and B, respectively). Nucleotide lengths are indicated on the left. Yellow arrows: predicted open reading frames (ORF) with their amino acid length. Colored boxes: identified protein motifs.

Mentions: VDV-2 codes for a predicted large open reading frame (ORF) of 2997 amino acids and Blastx analysis revealed that it bears rhino virus-like (rhv), helicase, 3C protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase motifs characteristic of Iflaviruses (Fig. 2A). Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome’s deduced polyprotein amino acid sequence shows the genetic relationship between VDV-2 and other Iflaviruses (Fig. 3A). The phylogenetic tree exhibits four major groups: (branch I), the group of Deformed wing virus + Varroa destructor-1 (DWV + VDV-1), branch II the Sacbrood virus group (SBV), branch III the Infectious flacherie virus group (IFV), and branch IV that bears Ecrotopis obliqua virus (EoV) and Perina nuda virus (PnV) as well as Spodoptera exigua iflavirus 2 (SeIV2). Our new discovered Varroa destructor virus-2 (VDV-2) is located in branch I which indicates that it is genetically closer to the DWV + VDV-1 group and more distant from branch IV of the tree that contains EoV + PnV and SeIV2 (Fig. 3A, ibid).


Two novel viruses associated with the Apis mellifera pathogenic mite Varroa destructor
Genomic organization of VDV2 and VDV-3 (A and B, respectively). Nucleotide lengths are indicated on the left. Yellow arrows: predicted open reading frames (ORF) with their amino acid length. Colored boxes: identified protein motifs.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5121581&req=5

f2: Genomic organization of VDV2 and VDV-3 (A and B, respectively). Nucleotide lengths are indicated on the left. Yellow arrows: predicted open reading frames (ORF) with their amino acid length. Colored boxes: identified protein motifs.
Mentions: VDV-2 codes for a predicted large open reading frame (ORF) of 2997 amino acids and Blastx analysis revealed that it bears rhino virus-like (rhv), helicase, 3C protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase motifs characteristic of Iflaviruses (Fig. 2A). Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome’s deduced polyprotein amino acid sequence shows the genetic relationship between VDV-2 and other Iflaviruses (Fig. 3A). The phylogenetic tree exhibits four major groups: (branch I), the group of Deformed wing virus + Varroa destructor-1 (DWV + VDV-1), branch II the Sacbrood virus group (SBV), branch III the Infectious flacherie virus group (IFV), and branch IV that bears Ecrotopis obliqua virus (EoV) and Perina nuda virus (PnV) as well as Spodoptera exigua iflavirus 2 (SeIV2). Our new discovered Varroa destructor virus-2 (VDV-2) is located in branch I which indicates that it is genetically closer to the DWV + VDV-1 group and more distant from branch IV of the tree that contains EoV + PnV and SeIV2 (Fig. 3A, ibid).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Varroa destructor infestation of Apis mellifera colonies carries and/or promotes replication of honey bee viruses like the Deformed wing virus, the Varroa destructor virus-1, the Acute bee paralysis virus, the Israeli acute bee paralysis virus and the Kashmir bee virus that have been well described and characterized; but viruses exclusively associated with Varroa were not found. To look for viruses that may associate with- or infect V. destructor we performed deep sequencing (RNA-seq) of RNA extracted from honey bees and mites in Varroa-infested untreated colonies. Comparative bioinformatic analysis of the two separate contig-assemblies generated from the sequences’ reads annotated using Blastx enabled identification of new viruses unique to Varroa and absent in A. mellifera: an Iflavirus and a virus with homology to Ixodes scapularis associated virus 2, that we named Varroa destructor virus 2 (VDV-2) and 3(VDV-3), respectively. We validated these findings sequencing the mite- and honey bee-viromes and in separate mites and honey bees randomly sampled. The complete genomes of VDV-2 and VDV-3 bear 9576 nucleotides and 4202 nucleotides, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of VDV-3 suggests that it belongs to a new group of viruses. Our results open venues for investigating the pathogenicity of these V. destructor viruses.

No MeSH data available.