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Two novel viruses associated with the Apis mellifera pathogenic mite Varroa destructor

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Varroa destructor infestation of Apis mellifera colonies carries and/or promotes replication of honey bee viruses like the Deformed wing virus, the Varroa destructor virus-1, the Acute bee paralysis virus, the Israeli acute bee paralysis virus and the Kashmir bee virus that have been well described and characterized; but viruses exclusively associated with Varroa were not found. To look for viruses that may associate with- or infect V. destructor we performed deep sequencing (RNA-seq) of RNA extracted from honey bees and mites in Varroa-infested untreated colonies. Comparative bioinformatic analysis of the two separate contig-assemblies generated from the sequences’ reads annotated using Blastx enabled identification of new viruses unique to Varroa and absent in A. mellifera: an Iflavirus and a virus with homology to Ixodes scapularis associated virus 2, that we named Varroa destructor virus 2 (VDV-2) and 3(VDV-3), respectively. We validated these findings sequencing the mite- and honey bee-viromes and in separate mites and honey bees randomly sampled. The complete genomes of VDV-2 and VDV-3 bear 9576 nucleotides and 4202 nucleotides, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of VDV-3 suggests that it belongs to a new group of viruses. Our results open venues for investigating the pathogenicity of these V. destructor viruses.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Contigs of viruses in A. mellifera and Varroa destructor in Varroa-infested untreated colonies. (B) Viruses common and uncommon to A. mellifera and Varroa destructor (overlapping and not overlapping circles, respectively). Numbers of viruses indicated in the circles, parenthesis % of viruses from total number of viruses found. *and **other viruses specified in Tables 1 and 2.
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f1: (A) Contigs of viruses in A. mellifera and Varroa destructor in Varroa-infested untreated colonies. (B) Viruses common and uncommon to A. mellifera and Varroa destructor (overlapping and not overlapping circles, respectively). Numbers of viruses indicated in the circles, parenthesis % of viruses from total number of viruses found. *and **other viruses specified in Tables 1 and 2.

Mentions: Mapping of the libraries’ reads to the viral contigs in A. mellifera and V. destructor resulted in 86.9% and 99.8% of the viral reads respectively that corresponded to DWV plus VDV-1 viruses (Fig. 1A). When we used a cutoff value of 0.0001% of the reads that mapped to the viral contigs we found four viruses that were common to A. mellifera and V. destructor, and 18 viruses that were unique to Varroa (Fig. 1B).


Two novel viruses associated with the Apis mellifera pathogenic mite Varroa destructor
(A) Contigs of viruses in A. mellifera and Varroa destructor in Varroa-infested untreated colonies. (B) Viruses common and uncommon to A. mellifera and Varroa destructor (overlapping and not overlapping circles, respectively). Numbers of viruses indicated in the circles, parenthesis % of viruses from total number of viruses found. *and **other viruses specified in Tables 1 and 2.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5121581&req=5

f1: (A) Contigs of viruses in A. mellifera and Varroa destructor in Varroa-infested untreated colonies. (B) Viruses common and uncommon to A. mellifera and Varroa destructor (overlapping and not overlapping circles, respectively). Numbers of viruses indicated in the circles, parenthesis % of viruses from total number of viruses found. *and **other viruses specified in Tables 1 and 2.
Mentions: Mapping of the libraries’ reads to the viral contigs in A. mellifera and V. destructor resulted in 86.9% and 99.8% of the viral reads respectively that corresponded to DWV plus VDV-1 viruses (Fig. 1A). When we used a cutoff value of 0.0001% of the reads that mapped to the viral contigs we found four viruses that were common to A. mellifera and V. destructor, and 18 viruses that were unique to Varroa (Fig. 1B).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Varroa destructor infestation of Apis mellifera colonies carries and/or promotes replication of honey bee viruses like the Deformed wing virus, the Varroa destructor virus-1, the Acute bee paralysis virus, the Israeli acute bee paralysis virus and the Kashmir bee virus that have been well described and characterized; but viruses exclusively associated with Varroa were not found. To look for viruses that may associate with- or infect V. destructor we performed deep sequencing (RNA-seq) of RNA extracted from honey bees and mites in Varroa-infested untreated colonies. Comparative bioinformatic analysis of the two separate contig-assemblies generated from the sequences’ reads annotated using Blastx enabled identification of new viruses unique to Varroa and absent in A. mellifera: an Iflavirus and a virus with homology to Ixodes scapularis associated virus 2, that we named Varroa destructor virus 2 (VDV-2) and 3(VDV-3), respectively. We validated these findings sequencing the mite- and honey bee-viromes and in separate mites and honey bees randomly sampled. The complete genomes of VDV-2 and VDV-3 bear 9576 nucleotides and 4202 nucleotides, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of VDV-3 suggests that it belongs to a new group of viruses. Our results open venues for investigating the pathogenicity of these V. destructor viruses.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus