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Meta ‐ Analysis of Potassium Intake and the Risk of Stroke

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: The possibility that lifestyle factors such as diet, specifically potassium intake, may modify the risk of stroke has been suggested by several observational cohort studies, including some recent reports. We performed a systematic review and meta‐analysis of existing studies and assessed the dose–response relation between potassium intake and stroke risk.

Methods and results: We reviewed the observational cohort studies addressing the relation between potassium intake, and incidence or mortality of total stroke or stroke subtypes published through August 6, 2016. We carried out a meta‐analysis of 16 cohort studies based on the relative risk (RR) of stroke comparing the highest versus lowest intake categories. We also plotted a pooled dose–response curve of RR of stroke according to potassium intake. Analyses were performed with and without adjustment for blood pressure. Relative to the lowest category of potassium intake, the highest category of potassium intake was associated with a 13% reduced risk of stroke (RR=0.87, 95% CI 0.80–0.94) in the blood pressure–adjusted analysis. Summary RRs tended to decrease when original estimates were unadjusted for blood pressure. Analysis for stroke subtypes yielded comparable results. In the spline analysis, the pooled RR was lowest at 90 mmol of potassium daily intake (RRs=0.78, 95% CI 0.70–0.86) in blood pressure–adjusted analysis, and 0.67 (95% CI 0.57–0.78) in unadjusted analysis.

Conclusions: Overall, this dose–response meta‐analysis confirms the inverse association between potassium intake and stroke risk, with potassium intake of 90 mmol (≈3500 mg)/day associated with the lowest risk of stroke.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Meta‐analysis of the relative risk (RR), with 95% CI of stroke in observational cohort studies according to category of baseline dietary potassium intake (<90, ≥90 to <120, ≥120 mmol/day). Estimates are from the most‐adjusted multivariate models with (A) and without (B) adjustment for blood pressure.
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jah31793-fig-0004: Meta‐analysis of the relative risk (RR), with 95% CI of stroke in observational cohort studies according to category of baseline dietary potassium intake (<90, ≥90 to <120, ≥120 mmol/day). Estimates are from the most‐adjusted multivariate models with (A) and without (B) adjustment for blood pressure.

Mentions: In stratified analyses by subgroups of dietary potassium intake (<90, 90–120, and ≥120 mmol/day), the summary RRs for the highest versus the lowest potassium exposure category increased with increasing exposure, as did the statistical imprecision of the estimate: 0.87 (95% CI 0.82–0.93), 0.92 (95% CI 0.82–1.04), and 1.02 (95% CI 0.83–1.24) for the respective subgroups (Figure 4).20, 21, 22, 23, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39 Corresponding figures for “blood pressure–unadjusted model” were 0.85 (95% CI 0.81–0.89), 0.90 (95% CI 0.79–1.01), and 0.97 (95% CI 0.77–1.21). In the analysis restricted to studies reporting estimates both with and without adjustment for blood pressure (Figure S1), the blood pressure–adjusted estimates were higher in all exposure categories compared to the unadjusted ones. Comparing adjusted with unadjusted estimates, overall RRs decreased from 0.88 (95% CI 0.82–0.95) to 0.85 (95% CI 0.80–0.90) in the lowest subgroup of potassium intake, from 0.85 (95% CI 0.82–0.95) to 0.78 (95% CI 0.61–0.99) in the intermediate subgroup of potassium intake, and from 0.96 (95% CI 0.80–1.14) to 0.90 (95% CI 0.74–1.09) in the highest subgroup of potassium intake.


Meta ‐ Analysis of Potassium Intake and the Risk of Stroke
Meta‐analysis of the relative risk (RR), with 95% CI of stroke in observational cohort studies according to category of baseline dietary potassium intake (<90, ≥90 to <120, ≥120 mmol/day). Estimates are from the most‐adjusted multivariate models with (A) and without (B) adjustment for blood pressure.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5121516&req=5

jah31793-fig-0004: Meta‐analysis of the relative risk (RR), with 95% CI of stroke in observational cohort studies according to category of baseline dietary potassium intake (<90, ≥90 to <120, ≥120 mmol/day). Estimates are from the most‐adjusted multivariate models with (A) and without (B) adjustment for blood pressure.
Mentions: In stratified analyses by subgroups of dietary potassium intake (<90, 90–120, and ≥120 mmol/day), the summary RRs for the highest versus the lowest potassium exposure category increased with increasing exposure, as did the statistical imprecision of the estimate: 0.87 (95% CI 0.82–0.93), 0.92 (95% CI 0.82–1.04), and 1.02 (95% CI 0.83–1.24) for the respective subgroups (Figure 4).20, 21, 22, 23, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39 Corresponding figures for “blood pressure–unadjusted model” were 0.85 (95% CI 0.81–0.89), 0.90 (95% CI 0.79–1.01), and 0.97 (95% CI 0.77–1.21). In the analysis restricted to studies reporting estimates both with and without adjustment for blood pressure (Figure S1), the blood pressure–adjusted estimates were higher in all exposure categories compared to the unadjusted ones. Comparing adjusted with unadjusted estimates, overall RRs decreased from 0.88 (95% CI 0.82–0.95) to 0.85 (95% CI 0.80–0.90) in the lowest subgroup of potassium intake, from 0.85 (95% CI 0.82–0.95) to 0.78 (95% CI 0.61–0.99) in the intermediate subgroup of potassium intake, and from 0.96 (95% CI 0.80–1.14) to 0.90 (95% CI 0.74–1.09) in the highest subgroup of potassium intake.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: The possibility that lifestyle factors such as diet, specifically potassium intake, may modify the risk of stroke has been suggested by several observational cohort studies, including some recent reports. We performed a systematic review and meta&#8208;analysis of existing studies and assessed the dose&ndash;response relation between potassium intake and stroke risk.

Methods and results: We reviewed the observational cohort studies addressing the relation between potassium intake, and incidence or mortality of total stroke or stroke subtypes published through August 6, 2016. We carried out a meta&#8208;analysis of 16 cohort studies based on the relative risk (RR) of stroke comparing the highest versus lowest intake categories. We also plotted a pooled dose&ndash;response curve of RR of stroke according to potassium intake. Analyses were performed with and without adjustment for blood pressure. Relative to the lowest category of potassium intake, the highest category of potassium intake was associated with a 13% reduced risk of stroke (RR=0.87, 95% CI 0.80&ndash;0.94) in the blood pressure&ndash;adjusted analysis. Summary RRs tended to decrease when original estimates were unadjusted for blood pressure. Analysis for stroke subtypes yielded comparable results. In the spline analysis, the pooled RR was lowest at 90&nbsp;mmol of potassium daily intake (RRs=0.78, 95% CI 0.70&ndash;0.86) in blood pressure&ndash;adjusted analysis, and 0.67 (95% CI 0.57&ndash;0.78) in unadjusted analysis.

Conclusions: Overall, this dose&ndash;response meta&#8208;analysis confirms the inverse association between potassium intake and stroke risk, with potassium intake of 90&nbsp;mmol (&asymp;3500&nbsp;mg)/day associated with the lowest risk of stroke.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus