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Associations of Maternal and Paternal Blood Pressure Patterns and Hypertensive Disorders during Pregnancy with Childhood Blood Pressure

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy may affect the cardiovascular risk of offspring. We examined the associations of maternal blood pressure throughout pregnancy and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy with childhood blood pressure of offspring. Specific focus was on the comparison with paternal blood pressure effects, the identification of critical periods, and the role of birth outcomes and childhood body mass index in the observed associations.

Methods and results: This study was embedded in a population‐based prospective cohort study among 5310 mothers and fathers and their children. We measured maternal blood pressure in each trimester of pregnancy and paternal blood pressure once. Information about hypertensive disorders in pregnancy was obtained from medical records. We measured childhood blood pressure at the median age of 6.0 years (95% range 5.7–8.0 years). Both maternal and paternal blood pressure were positively associated with childhood blood pressure (all P<0.05), with similar effect estimates. Conditional regression analyses showed that early, mid‐, and late‐pregnancy maternal blood pressure levels were all independent and positively associated with childhood blood pressure, with the strongest effect estimates for early pregnancy. Compared with children of mothers without hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, children of mothers with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy had higher diastolic blood pressure by a standard deviation score of 0.13 (95% CI 0.05–0.21). The observed associations were not materially affected by birth outcomes and childhood body mass index.

Conclusions: Both maternal and paternal blood pressure affects childhood blood pressure, independent of fetal and childhood growth measures, with the strongest effect of maternal blood pressure in early pregnancy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Associations of maternal blood pressure with childhood blood pressure and hypertension from conditional regression models (n=5310). A, Associations of maternal blood pressure with childhood blood pressure. B, Associations of maternal blood pressure with childhood hypertension. Values are linear (A) and logistic (B) regression coefficients (95% CI) that reflect the difference in childhood systolic and diastolic blood pressure per standardized residual for maternal blood pressure during each trimester of pregnancy independent of previous‐trimester blood pressure measurements. Confounder models are adjusted for maternal age, prepregnancy BMI, ethnicity, parity, educational level, smoking during pregnancy, alcohol consumption, and folic acid supplement intake. Birth models are confounder models additionally adjusted for birth weight and gestational age. Childhood models are confounder models additionally adjusted for child current BMI. BMI indicates body mass index; OR, odds ratio; SDS, standard deviation score.
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jah31801-fig-0004: Associations of maternal blood pressure with childhood blood pressure and hypertension from conditional regression models (n=5310). A, Associations of maternal blood pressure with childhood blood pressure. B, Associations of maternal blood pressure with childhood hypertension. Values are linear (A) and logistic (B) regression coefficients (95% CI) that reflect the difference in childhood systolic and diastolic blood pressure per standardized residual for maternal blood pressure during each trimester of pregnancy independent of previous‐trimester blood pressure measurements. Confounder models are adjusted for maternal age, prepregnancy BMI, ethnicity, parity, educational level, smoking during pregnancy, alcohol consumption, and folic acid supplement intake. Birth models are confounder models additionally adjusted for birth weight and gestational age. Childhood models are confounder models additionally adjusted for child current BMI. BMI indicates body mass index; OR, odds ratio; SDS, standard deviation score.

Mentions: Figure 4A shows that maternal blood pressure in early, mid‐, and late pregnancy were all independently associated with childhood blood pressure (all P<0.05). The strongest effect estimates were observed for early pregnancy maternal blood pressure (differences in childhood SBP and DBP by SDS 0.08 [95% CI 0.05–0.10] and 0.05 [95% CI 0.03–0.07], respectively, per standardized residual increase in maternal SBP and DBP, respectively).


Associations of Maternal and Paternal Blood Pressure Patterns and Hypertensive Disorders during Pregnancy with Childhood Blood Pressure
Associations of maternal blood pressure with childhood blood pressure and hypertension from conditional regression models (n=5310). A, Associations of maternal blood pressure with childhood blood pressure. B, Associations of maternal blood pressure with childhood hypertension. Values are linear (A) and logistic (B) regression coefficients (95% CI) that reflect the difference in childhood systolic and diastolic blood pressure per standardized residual for maternal blood pressure during each trimester of pregnancy independent of previous‐trimester blood pressure measurements. Confounder models are adjusted for maternal age, prepregnancy BMI, ethnicity, parity, educational level, smoking during pregnancy, alcohol consumption, and folic acid supplement intake. Birth models are confounder models additionally adjusted for birth weight and gestational age. Childhood models are confounder models additionally adjusted for child current BMI. BMI indicates body mass index; OR, odds ratio; SDS, standard deviation score.
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy-nc-nd
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5121490&req=5

jah31801-fig-0004: Associations of maternal blood pressure with childhood blood pressure and hypertension from conditional regression models (n=5310). A, Associations of maternal blood pressure with childhood blood pressure. B, Associations of maternal blood pressure with childhood hypertension. Values are linear (A) and logistic (B) regression coefficients (95% CI) that reflect the difference in childhood systolic and diastolic blood pressure per standardized residual for maternal blood pressure during each trimester of pregnancy independent of previous‐trimester blood pressure measurements. Confounder models are adjusted for maternal age, prepregnancy BMI, ethnicity, parity, educational level, smoking during pregnancy, alcohol consumption, and folic acid supplement intake. Birth models are confounder models additionally adjusted for birth weight and gestational age. Childhood models are confounder models additionally adjusted for child current BMI. BMI indicates body mass index; OR, odds ratio; SDS, standard deviation score.
Mentions: Figure 4A shows that maternal blood pressure in early, mid‐, and late pregnancy were all independently associated with childhood blood pressure (all P<0.05). The strongest effect estimates were observed for early pregnancy maternal blood pressure (differences in childhood SBP and DBP by SDS 0.08 [95% CI 0.05–0.10] and 0.05 [95% CI 0.03–0.07], respectively, per standardized residual increase in maternal SBP and DBP, respectively).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy may affect the cardiovascular risk of offspring. We examined the associations of maternal blood pressure throughout pregnancy and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy with childhood blood pressure of offspring. Specific focus was on the comparison with paternal blood pressure effects, the identification of critical periods, and the role of birth outcomes and childhood body mass index in the observed associations.

Methods and results: This study was embedded in a population&#8208;based prospective cohort study among 5310 mothers and fathers and their children. We measured maternal blood pressure in each trimester of pregnancy and paternal blood pressure once. Information about hypertensive disorders in pregnancy was obtained from medical records. We measured childhood blood pressure at the median age of 6.0&nbsp;years (95% range 5.7&ndash;8.0 years). Both maternal and paternal blood pressure were positively associated with childhood blood pressure (all P&lt;0.05), with similar effect estimates. Conditional regression analyses showed that early, mid&#8208;, and late&#8208;pregnancy maternal blood pressure levels were all independent and positively associated with childhood blood pressure, with the strongest effect estimates for early pregnancy. Compared with children of mothers without hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, children of mothers with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy had higher diastolic blood pressure by a standard deviation score of 0.13&nbsp;(95% CI 0.05&ndash;0.21). The observed associations were not materially affected by birth outcomes and childhood body mass index.

Conclusions: Both maternal and paternal blood pressure affects childhood blood pressure, independent of fetal and childhood growth measures, with the strongest effect of maternal blood pressure in early pregnancy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus