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Associations of Maternal and Paternal Blood Pressure Patterns and Hypertensive Disorders during Pregnancy with Childhood Blood Pressure

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy may affect the cardiovascular risk of offspring. We examined the associations of maternal blood pressure throughout pregnancy and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy with childhood blood pressure of offspring. Specific focus was on the comparison with paternal blood pressure effects, the identification of critical periods, and the role of birth outcomes and childhood body mass index in the observed associations.

Methods and results: This study was embedded in a population‐based prospective cohort study among 5310 mothers and fathers and their children. We measured maternal blood pressure in each trimester of pregnancy and paternal blood pressure once. Information about hypertensive disorders in pregnancy was obtained from medical records. We measured childhood blood pressure at the median age of 6.0 years (95% range 5.7–8.0 years). Both maternal and paternal blood pressure were positively associated with childhood blood pressure (all P<0.05), with similar effect estimates. Conditional regression analyses showed that early, mid‐, and late‐pregnancy maternal blood pressure levels were all independent and positively associated with childhood blood pressure, with the strongest effect estimates for early pregnancy. Compared with children of mothers without hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, children of mothers with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy had higher diastolic blood pressure by a standard deviation score of 0.13 (95% CI 0.05–0.21). The observed associations were not materially affected by birth outcomes and childhood body mass index.

Conclusions: Both maternal and paternal blood pressure affects childhood blood pressure, independent of fetal and childhood growth measures, with the strongest effect of maternal blood pressure in early pregnancy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Maternal blood pressure patterns from children in different blood pressure tertiles (n=5310). Maternal blood pressure pattern per childhood blood pressure tertile. A, Systolic blood pressure. Difference in maternal systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) between childhood systolic blood pressure tertiles based on mixed‐effects regression models. Model: Maternal systolic blood pressure=β0+β1×child systolic blood pressure tertile+β2×gestational age+β3×gestational age−2+β4×child systolic blood pressure tertile×gestational age. B, Diastolic blood pressure. Difference in maternal diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) for childhood diastolic blood pressure tertiles based on mixed effects regression analysis. Model: Maternal diastolic blood pressure=β0+β1×child diastolic blood pressure tertile+β2×gestational age+β3×gestational age0.5+β4×child diastolic blood pressure tertile×gestational age. Effect estimates (95% CIs) are given in Table S3.
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jah31801-fig-0001: Maternal blood pressure patterns from children in different blood pressure tertiles (n=5310). Maternal blood pressure pattern per childhood blood pressure tertile. A, Systolic blood pressure. Difference in maternal systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) between childhood systolic blood pressure tertiles based on mixed‐effects regression models. Model: Maternal systolic blood pressure=β0+β1×child systolic blood pressure tertile+β2×gestational age+β3×gestational age−2+β4×child systolic blood pressure tertile×gestational age. B, Diastolic blood pressure. Difference in maternal diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) for childhood diastolic blood pressure tertiles based on mixed effects regression analysis. Model: Maternal diastolic blood pressure=β0+β1×child diastolic blood pressure tertile+β2×gestational age+β3×gestational age0.5+β4×child diastolic blood pressure tertile×gestational age. Effect estimates (95% CIs) are given in Table S3.

Mentions: Figure 1 shows that children in the highest tertile of SBP had mothers with higher SBP throughout pregnancy than children in the lowest tertile of SBP. For each tertile of childhood blood pressure, maternal blood pressure increased with advanced gestational age. There was no significant difference in the slope of maternal SBP between tertiles of children's blood pressure. For all childhood DBP tertiles, maternal DBP had a midpregnancy dip with an increase thereafter. DBP was highest throughout pregnancy for mothers of children in the highest tertile. The exact corresponding regression coefficients for gestational age–independent (intercept) and gestational age–dependent differences (interaction of childhood blood pressure and gestational age) are given in Table S3. Additional analyses showed that higher maternal blood pressure in early, mid‐, and late pregnancy and paternal blood pressure were all separately associated with higher childhood blood pressure (all P<0.05). The effect estimates for mother and father were similar and were not affected by birth outcomes or childhood BMI (Table S4).


Associations of Maternal and Paternal Blood Pressure Patterns and Hypertensive Disorders during Pregnancy with Childhood Blood Pressure
Maternal blood pressure patterns from children in different blood pressure tertiles (n=5310). Maternal blood pressure pattern per childhood blood pressure tertile. A, Systolic blood pressure. Difference in maternal systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) between childhood systolic blood pressure tertiles based on mixed‐effects regression models. Model: Maternal systolic blood pressure=β0+β1×child systolic blood pressure tertile+β2×gestational age+β3×gestational age−2+β4×child systolic blood pressure tertile×gestational age. B, Diastolic blood pressure. Difference in maternal diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) for childhood diastolic blood pressure tertiles based on mixed effects regression analysis. Model: Maternal diastolic blood pressure=β0+β1×child diastolic blood pressure tertile+β2×gestational age+β3×gestational age0.5+β4×child diastolic blood pressure tertile×gestational age. Effect estimates (95% CIs) are given in Table S3.
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jah31801-fig-0001: Maternal blood pressure patterns from children in different blood pressure tertiles (n=5310). Maternal blood pressure pattern per childhood blood pressure tertile. A, Systolic blood pressure. Difference in maternal systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) between childhood systolic blood pressure tertiles based on mixed‐effects regression models. Model: Maternal systolic blood pressure=β0+β1×child systolic blood pressure tertile+β2×gestational age+β3×gestational age−2+β4×child systolic blood pressure tertile×gestational age. B, Diastolic blood pressure. Difference in maternal diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) for childhood diastolic blood pressure tertiles based on mixed effects regression analysis. Model: Maternal diastolic blood pressure=β0+β1×child diastolic blood pressure tertile+β2×gestational age+β3×gestational age0.5+β4×child diastolic blood pressure tertile×gestational age. Effect estimates (95% CIs) are given in Table S3.
Mentions: Figure 1 shows that children in the highest tertile of SBP had mothers with higher SBP throughout pregnancy than children in the lowest tertile of SBP. For each tertile of childhood blood pressure, maternal blood pressure increased with advanced gestational age. There was no significant difference in the slope of maternal SBP between tertiles of children's blood pressure. For all childhood DBP tertiles, maternal DBP had a midpregnancy dip with an increase thereafter. DBP was highest throughout pregnancy for mothers of children in the highest tertile. The exact corresponding regression coefficients for gestational age–independent (intercept) and gestational age–dependent differences (interaction of childhood blood pressure and gestational age) are given in Table S3. Additional analyses showed that higher maternal blood pressure in early, mid‐, and late pregnancy and paternal blood pressure were all separately associated with higher childhood blood pressure (all P<0.05). The effect estimates for mother and father were similar and were not affected by birth outcomes or childhood BMI (Table S4).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy may affect the cardiovascular risk of offspring. We examined the associations of maternal blood pressure throughout pregnancy and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy with childhood blood pressure of offspring. Specific focus was on the comparison with paternal blood pressure effects, the identification of critical periods, and the role of birth outcomes and childhood body mass index in the observed associations.

Methods and results: This study was embedded in a population&#8208;based prospective cohort study among 5310 mothers and fathers and their children. We measured maternal blood pressure in each trimester of pregnancy and paternal blood pressure once. Information about hypertensive disorders in pregnancy was obtained from medical records. We measured childhood blood pressure at the median age of 6.0&nbsp;years (95% range 5.7&ndash;8.0 years). Both maternal and paternal blood pressure were positively associated with childhood blood pressure (all P&lt;0.05), with similar effect estimates. Conditional regression analyses showed that early, mid&#8208;, and late&#8208;pregnancy maternal blood pressure levels were all independent and positively associated with childhood blood pressure, with the strongest effect estimates for early pregnancy. Compared with children of mothers without hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, children of mothers with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy had higher diastolic blood pressure by a standard deviation score of 0.13&nbsp;(95% CI 0.05&ndash;0.21). The observed associations were not materially affected by birth outcomes and childhood body mass index.

Conclusions: Both maternal and paternal blood pressure affects childhood blood pressure, independent of fetal and childhood growth measures, with the strongest effect of maternal blood pressure in early pregnancy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus