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Tolerance in Kidney Transplantation: What Is on the B Side?

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Regulatory B cells (Breg) are in the spotlight for their role in immune homeostasis maintenance and tolerance achievement as in the last years the correlation with functional and increased Breg numbers in autoimmune diseases and transplantation has been extensively proven. Their study is, however, in its infancy with still little knowledge and consensus on their origin, phenotype, and mechanism of action. All this hampers the pursuit of an effective Breg induction method for therapeutic purposes. In this review we aim to summarize the studies on human Breg and their implication in kidney transplantation and to further discuss the issues surrounding therapeutic applications of this cell subset.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Graphical summary of the main Breg induction methods, mode of action, and immunosuppressive functions that have been proposed in the literature. ODN: oligodeoxynucleotides; IL: interleukin; BCR: B cell antigen receptor; IFN: interferon; LPS: lipopolysaccharide; BAFF: B cell activating factor; APRIL: a proliferation-inducing ligand; MSC: Mesenchymal Stem Cells; GzmB: granzyme B; TGF: transforming growth factor; ADO: adenosine; AMP: adenosine monophosphate; IDO: indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase; CTLA-4: Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4; ICOS: inducible T cell costimulator.
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fig1: Graphical summary of the main Breg induction methods, mode of action, and immunosuppressive functions that have been proposed in the literature. ODN: oligodeoxynucleotides; IL: interleukin; BCR: B cell antigen receptor; IFN: interferon; LPS: lipopolysaccharide; BAFF: B cell activating factor; APRIL: a proliferation-inducing ligand; MSC: Mesenchymal Stem Cells; GzmB: granzyme B; TGF: transforming growth factor; ADO: adenosine; AMP: adenosine monophosphate; IDO: indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase; CTLA-4: Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4; ICOS: inducible T cell costimulator.

Mentions: Among other biological functions, IL-10 promotes the downregulation of antigen presentation by macrophages and dendritic cells and suppresses the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, interferon (IFN)-γ, and TNF-α by CD4+ T cells, monocytes, and macrophages [29, 31] (Figure 1).


Tolerance in Kidney Transplantation: What Is on the B Side?
Graphical summary of the main Breg induction methods, mode of action, and immunosuppressive functions that have been proposed in the literature. ODN: oligodeoxynucleotides; IL: interleukin; BCR: B cell antigen receptor; IFN: interferon; LPS: lipopolysaccharide; BAFF: B cell activating factor; APRIL: a proliferation-inducing ligand; MSC: Mesenchymal Stem Cells; GzmB: granzyme B; TGF: transforming growth factor; ADO: adenosine; AMP: adenosine monophosphate; IDO: indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase; CTLA-4: Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4; ICOS: inducible T cell costimulator.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5121468&req=5

fig1: Graphical summary of the main Breg induction methods, mode of action, and immunosuppressive functions that have been proposed in the literature. ODN: oligodeoxynucleotides; IL: interleukin; BCR: B cell antigen receptor; IFN: interferon; LPS: lipopolysaccharide; BAFF: B cell activating factor; APRIL: a proliferation-inducing ligand; MSC: Mesenchymal Stem Cells; GzmB: granzyme B; TGF: transforming growth factor; ADO: adenosine; AMP: adenosine monophosphate; IDO: indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase; CTLA-4: Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4; ICOS: inducible T cell costimulator.
Mentions: Among other biological functions, IL-10 promotes the downregulation of antigen presentation by macrophages and dendritic cells and suppresses the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, interferon (IFN)-γ, and TNF-α by CD4+ T cells, monocytes, and macrophages [29, 31] (Figure 1).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Regulatory B cells (Breg) are in the spotlight for their role in immune homeostasis maintenance and tolerance achievement as in the last years the correlation with functional and increased Breg numbers in autoimmune diseases and transplantation has been extensively proven. Their study is, however, in its infancy with still little knowledge and consensus on their origin, phenotype, and mechanism of action. All this hampers the pursuit of an effective Breg induction method for therapeutic purposes. In this review we aim to summarize the studies on human Breg and their implication in kidney transplantation and to further discuss the issues surrounding therapeutic applications of this cell subset.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus