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Evidence from stable isotopes and 10 Be for solar system formation triggered by a low-mass supernova

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ABSTRACT

About 4.6 billion years ago, some event disturbed a cloud of gas and dust, triggering the gravitational collapse that led to the formation of the solar system. A core-collapse supernova, whose shock wave is capable of compressing such a cloud, is an obvious candidate for the initiating event. This hypothesis can be tested because supernovae also produce telltale patterns of short-lived radionuclides, which would be preserved today as isotopic anomalies. Previous studies of the forensic evidence have been inconclusive, finding a pattern of isotopes differing from that produced in conventional supernova models. Here we argue that these difficulties either do not arise or are mitigated if the initiating supernova was a special type, low in mass and explosion energy. Key to our conclusion is the demonstration that short-lived 10Be can be readily synthesized in such supernovae by neutrino interactions, while anomalies in stable isotopes are suppressed.

No MeSH data available.


Relations between parameters characterizing the core-collapse supernova trigger.The parameter f denotes the fraction of the yields of short-lived radionuclides incorporated into the proto-solar cloud, per solar mass. The parameter Δ denotes the time between the supernova explosion and incorporation of short-lived radionuclides into early solar system solids. Results are calculated from equation (1) using yields for the 11.8-solar-mass model with no fallback (Case 1) and meteoritic data for 10Be, 41Ca and 107Pd with 2σ uncertainties (Table 1). The filled circle at f∼5 × 10−4 and Δ∼1 Myr is the approximate best-fit point within the overlap region.
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f2: Relations between parameters characterizing the core-collapse supernova trigger.The parameter f denotes the fraction of the yields of short-lived radionuclides incorporated into the proto-solar cloud, per solar mass. The parameter Δ denotes the time between the supernova explosion and incorporation of short-lived radionuclides into early solar system solids. Results are calculated from equation (1) using yields for the 11.8-solar-mass model with no fallback (Case 1) and meteoritic data for 10Be, 41Ca and 107Pd with 2σ uncertainties (Table 1). The filled circle at f∼5 × 10−4 and Δ∼1 Myr is the approximate best-fit point within the overlap region.

Mentions: Table 1 gives the mass yields of 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 53Mn, 60Fe, 107Pd, 135Cs, 182Hf and 205Pb for the 11.8 model. A comparison of equation (1) to the observed value, including uncertainties22313233343536373839404142434445, yields a band of allowed f and Δ for each SLR. Simultaneous explanation of SLRs then requires the corresponding bands to overlap. Figure 2 shows a region of concordance for 10Be, 41Ca and 107Pd. This fixes f and Δ, allowing us to estimate the contributions from the 11.8 CCSN to other SLRs. The Case 1 contributions to 26Al, 36Cl, 53Mn, 60Fe, 135Cs, 182Hf and 205Pb in Table 1 correspond to f∼5 × 10−4 and Δ∼1 Myr, the approximate best-fit point indicated by the filled circle in Fig. 2.


Evidence from stable isotopes and 10 Be for solar system formation triggered by a low-mass supernova
Relations between parameters characterizing the core-collapse supernova trigger.The parameter f denotes the fraction of the yields of short-lived radionuclides incorporated into the proto-solar cloud, per solar mass. The parameter Δ denotes the time between the supernova explosion and incorporation of short-lived radionuclides into early solar system solids. Results are calculated from equation (1) using yields for the 11.8-solar-mass model with no fallback (Case 1) and meteoritic data for 10Be, 41Ca and 107Pd with 2σ uncertainties (Table 1). The filled circle at f∼5 × 10−4 and Δ∼1 Myr is the approximate best-fit point within the overlap region.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5121422&req=5

f2: Relations between parameters characterizing the core-collapse supernova trigger.The parameter f denotes the fraction of the yields of short-lived radionuclides incorporated into the proto-solar cloud, per solar mass. The parameter Δ denotes the time between the supernova explosion and incorporation of short-lived radionuclides into early solar system solids. Results are calculated from equation (1) using yields for the 11.8-solar-mass model with no fallback (Case 1) and meteoritic data for 10Be, 41Ca and 107Pd with 2σ uncertainties (Table 1). The filled circle at f∼5 × 10−4 and Δ∼1 Myr is the approximate best-fit point within the overlap region.
Mentions: Table 1 gives the mass yields of 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 53Mn, 60Fe, 107Pd, 135Cs, 182Hf and 205Pb for the 11.8 model. A comparison of equation (1) to the observed value, including uncertainties22313233343536373839404142434445, yields a band of allowed f and Δ for each SLR. Simultaneous explanation of SLRs then requires the corresponding bands to overlap. Figure 2 shows a region of concordance for 10Be, 41Ca and 107Pd. This fixes f and Δ, allowing us to estimate the contributions from the 11.8 CCSN to other SLRs. The Case 1 contributions to 26Al, 36Cl, 53Mn, 60Fe, 135Cs, 182Hf and 205Pb in Table 1 correspond to f∼5 × 10−4 and Δ∼1 Myr, the approximate best-fit point indicated by the filled circle in Fig. 2.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

About 4.6 billion years ago, some event disturbed a cloud of gas and dust, triggering the gravitational collapse that led to the formation of the solar system. A core-collapse supernova, whose shock wave is capable of compressing such a cloud, is an obvious candidate for the initiating event. This hypothesis can be tested because supernovae also produce telltale patterns of short-lived radionuclides, which would be preserved today as isotopic anomalies. Previous studies of the forensic evidence have been inconclusive, finding a pattern of isotopes differing from that produced in conventional supernova models. Here we argue that these difficulties either do not arise or are mitigated if the initiating supernova was a special type, low in mass and explosion energy. Key to our conclusion is the demonstration that short-lived 10Be can be readily synthesized in such supernovae by neutrino interactions, while anomalies in stable isotopes are suppressed.

No MeSH data available.