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Development of catecholamine and cortisol stress responses in zebrafish ☆ ☆ ☆

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Both adrenal catecholamines and steroids are known to be involved in the stress response, immune function, blood pressure and energy homeostasis. The response to stress is characterized by the activation of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system, though the correlation with activation and development is not well understood. We evaluated the stress response of both cortisol and catecholamines during development in zebrafish. Zebrafish at two different stages of development were stressed in one of two different ways and cortisol and catecholamine were measured. Cortisol was measured by enzyme immune assay and catecholamine was measured by ELISA. Our results show that stress responses are delayed until after the synthesis of both cortisol and catecholamines. These observations suggest that the development of HPA axis may be required for the acquisition of the stress response for cortisol and catecholamines.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Cortisol and catecholamines levels among various stressed conditions during early development in zebrafish (** = p < 0.01).(A) Cortisol levels in zebrafish embryos with acute stress were determined at 48 or 97 hpf. The baseline cortisol level was low at 48 hpf and significantly increased by 97 hpf. Stress-activated elevation of cortisol was observed at 97 hpf (p = 1.1E-06; Control vs. Roller swirling, p = 8.5E-07; Control vs. Hand swirling), as previously reported [10], [11], [12]. In stressed samples with roller swirling, the cortisol level was slightly elevated compared to control at 48 hpf (p = 0.009; Control vs. Roller swirling). Values are means SEM. n = 15 (control), n = 16 (roller swirling), n = 17 (hand swirling).(B) Adrenaline and noradrenaline levels in zebrafish embryos with acute stress were determined at 48, 97 or 120 hpf. The baseline catecholamine level were low at 48 hpf and gradually increased toward 120 hpf. Stressed-activated elevation of catecholamines were observed at 97 and 120 hpf (97 hpf: Adrenaline, p = 0.008; Control vs. Roller swirling, p = 0.0006; Control vs. Hand swirling, Noradrenaline, p = 0.003; Control vs. Roller swirling, p = 0.002; Control vs. Hand swirling, 120 hpf: Adrenaline, p = 1.26E-05; Control vs. Roller swirling, p = 0.0005; Control vs. Hand swirling, Noradrenaline, p = 0.002; Control vs. Roller swirling, p = 0.003; Control vs. Hand swirling). There are no statistically significant differences between control and stressed samples at 48 hpf (Adrenaline, p = 0.99; Control vs. Roller swirling, p = 0.20; Control vs. Hand swirling, Noradrenaline, p = 0.49; Control vs. Roller swirling, p = 0.20; Control vs. Hand swirling). Values are means ± SEM. Adrenaline; n = 41 (control), n = 31 (roller swirling), n = 38 (hand swirling), Noradrenaline; n = 40 (control), n = 33 (roller swirling), n = 35 (hand swirling).
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f0005: Cortisol and catecholamines levels among various stressed conditions during early development in zebrafish (** = p < 0.01).(A) Cortisol levels in zebrafish embryos with acute stress were determined at 48 or 97 hpf. The baseline cortisol level was low at 48 hpf and significantly increased by 97 hpf. Stress-activated elevation of cortisol was observed at 97 hpf (p = 1.1E-06; Control vs. Roller swirling, p = 8.5E-07; Control vs. Hand swirling), as previously reported [10], [11], [12]. In stressed samples with roller swirling, the cortisol level was slightly elevated compared to control at 48 hpf (p = 0.009; Control vs. Roller swirling). Values are means SEM. n = 15 (control), n = 16 (roller swirling), n = 17 (hand swirling).(B) Adrenaline and noradrenaline levels in zebrafish embryos with acute stress were determined at 48, 97 or 120 hpf. The baseline catecholamine level were low at 48 hpf and gradually increased toward 120 hpf. Stressed-activated elevation of catecholamines were observed at 97 and 120 hpf (97 hpf: Adrenaline, p = 0.008; Control vs. Roller swirling, p = 0.0006; Control vs. Hand swirling, Noradrenaline, p = 0.003; Control vs. Roller swirling, p = 0.002; Control vs. Hand swirling, 120 hpf: Adrenaline, p = 1.26E-05; Control vs. Roller swirling, p = 0.0005; Control vs. Hand swirling, Noradrenaline, p = 0.002; Control vs. Roller swirling, p = 0.003; Control vs. Hand swirling). There are no statistically significant differences between control and stressed samples at 48 hpf (Adrenaline, p = 0.99; Control vs. Roller swirling, p = 0.20; Control vs. Hand swirling, Noradrenaline, p = 0.49; Control vs. Roller swirling, p = 0.20; Control vs. Hand swirling). Values are means ± SEM. Adrenaline; n = 41 (control), n = 31 (roller swirling), n = 38 (hand swirling), Noradrenaline; n = 40 (control), n = 33 (roller swirling), n = 35 (hand swirling).

Mentions: The recent studies demonstrated that the synthesis of cortisol begins about 48 hpf, around the time of hatch, and stress-induced cortisol elevation occurs from 97 hpf after the development of the HPA-axis in zebrafish [10], [11], [12]. Our data confirmed obvious stress induced cortisol elevation at 97 hpf with both roller and hand swirling (Fig. 1A, Student's t-test, p value = 1.06E-06, Control vs. Roller swirling; Student's t-test, p value = 8.5E-07, Control vs. Hand swirling). Moreover, mild, but statistically significant stress induced cortisol elevations were observed at 48 hpf with roller swirling (Fig. 1A, Student's t-test, p value = 0.009). These results suggest that the mildly increased cortisol, which is induced by stress at 48 hpf, may be due to the direct response of the adrenal gland, since the HPA axis, which mediates the stress-activated cortisol response, is not developed at this stage [10], [11], [12].


Development of catecholamine and cortisol stress responses in zebrafish ☆ ☆ ☆
Cortisol and catecholamines levels among various stressed conditions during early development in zebrafish (** = p < 0.01).(A) Cortisol levels in zebrafish embryos with acute stress were determined at 48 or 97 hpf. The baseline cortisol level was low at 48 hpf and significantly increased by 97 hpf. Stress-activated elevation of cortisol was observed at 97 hpf (p = 1.1E-06; Control vs. Roller swirling, p = 8.5E-07; Control vs. Hand swirling), as previously reported [10], [11], [12]. In stressed samples with roller swirling, the cortisol level was slightly elevated compared to control at 48 hpf (p = 0.009; Control vs. Roller swirling). Values are means SEM. n = 15 (control), n = 16 (roller swirling), n = 17 (hand swirling).(B) Adrenaline and noradrenaline levels in zebrafish embryos with acute stress were determined at 48, 97 or 120 hpf. The baseline catecholamine level were low at 48 hpf and gradually increased toward 120 hpf. Stressed-activated elevation of catecholamines were observed at 97 and 120 hpf (97 hpf: Adrenaline, p = 0.008; Control vs. Roller swirling, p = 0.0006; Control vs. Hand swirling, Noradrenaline, p = 0.003; Control vs. Roller swirling, p = 0.002; Control vs. Hand swirling, 120 hpf: Adrenaline, p = 1.26E-05; Control vs. Roller swirling, p = 0.0005; Control vs. Hand swirling, Noradrenaline, p = 0.002; Control vs. Roller swirling, p = 0.003; Control vs. Hand swirling). There are no statistically significant differences between control and stressed samples at 48 hpf (Adrenaline, p = 0.99; Control vs. Roller swirling, p = 0.20; Control vs. Hand swirling, Noradrenaline, p = 0.49; Control vs. Roller swirling, p = 0.20; Control vs. Hand swirling). Values are means ± SEM. Adrenaline; n = 41 (control), n = 31 (roller swirling), n = 38 (hand swirling), Noradrenaline; n = 40 (control), n = 33 (roller swirling), n = 35 (hand swirling).
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f0005: Cortisol and catecholamines levels among various stressed conditions during early development in zebrafish (** = p < 0.01).(A) Cortisol levels in zebrafish embryos with acute stress were determined at 48 or 97 hpf. The baseline cortisol level was low at 48 hpf and significantly increased by 97 hpf. Stress-activated elevation of cortisol was observed at 97 hpf (p = 1.1E-06; Control vs. Roller swirling, p = 8.5E-07; Control vs. Hand swirling), as previously reported [10], [11], [12]. In stressed samples with roller swirling, the cortisol level was slightly elevated compared to control at 48 hpf (p = 0.009; Control vs. Roller swirling). Values are means SEM. n = 15 (control), n = 16 (roller swirling), n = 17 (hand swirling).(B) Adrenaline and noradrenaline levels in zebrafish embryos with acute stress were determined at 48, 97 or 120 hpf. The baseline catecholamine level were low at 48 hpf and gradually increased toward 120 hpf. Stressed-activated elevation of catecholamines were observed at 97 and 120 hpf (97 hpf: Adrenaline, p = 0.008; Control vs. Roller swirling, p = 0.0006; Control vs. Hand swirling, Noradrenaline, p = 0.003; Control vs. Roller swirling, p = 0.002; Control vs. Hand swirling, 120 hpf: Adrenaline, p = 1.26E-05; Control vs. Roller swirling, p = 0.0005; Control vs. Hand swirling, Noradrenaline, p = 0.002; Control vs. Roller swirling, p = 0.003; Control vs. Hand swirling). There are no statistically significant differences between control and stressed samples at 48 hpf (Adrenaline, p = 0.99; Control vs. Roller swirling, p = 0.20; Control vs. Hand swirling, Noradrenaline, p = 0.49; Control vs. Roller swirling, p = 0.20; Control vs. Hand swirling). Values are means ± SEM. Adrenaline; n = 41 (control), n = 31 (roller swirling), n = 38 (hand swirling), Noradrenaline; n = 40 (control), n = 33 (roller swirling), n = 35 (hand swirling).
Mentions: The recent studies demonstrated that the synthesis of cortisol begins about 48 hpf, around the time of hatch, and stress-induced cortisol elevation occurs from 97 hpf after the development of the HPA-axis in zebrafish [10], [11], [12]. Our data confirmed obvious stress induced cortisol elevation at 97 hpf with both roller and hand swirling (Fig. 1A, Student's t-test, p value = 1.06E-06, Control vs. Roller swirling; Student's t-test, p value = 8.5E-07, Control vs. Hand swirling). Moreover, mild, but statistically significant stress induced cortisol elevations were observed at 48 hpf with roller swirling (Fig. 1A, Student's t-test, p value = 0.009). These results suggest that the mildly increased cortisol, which is induced by stress at 48 hpf, may be due to the direct response of the adrenal gland, since the HPA axis, which mediates the stress-activated cortisol response, is not developed at this stage [10], [11], [12].

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Both adrenal catecholamines and steroids are known to be involved in the stress response, immune function, blood pressure and energy homeostasis. The response to stress is characterized by the activation of the hypothalamus&ndash;pituitary&ndash;adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system, though the correlation with activation and development is not well understood. We evaluated the stress response of both cortisol and catecholamines during development in zebrafish. Zebrafish at two different stages of development were stressed in one of two different ways and cortisol and catecholamine were measured. Cortisol was measured by enzyme immune assay and catecholamine was measured by ELISA. Our results show that stress responses are delayed until after the synthesis of both cortisol and catecholamines. These observations suggest that the development of HPA axis may be required for the acquisition of the stress response for cortisol and catecholamines.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus