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Healthcare Needs, Experiences and Satisfaction after Terrorism: A Longitudinal Study of Survivors from the Ut ø ya Attack

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background:: Public health outreach programs have been developed in order to ensure that needs are met after disasters. However, little is known about survivors' experiences with post-terror healthcare. In the present study, our objectives were to (1) describe survivors' experiences with post-terror healthcare, (2) identify factors associated with reports of unmet healthcare needs, and (3) examine the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics, healthcare experiences and satisfaction.

Methods:: Our study comprised three waves of semi-structured interviews with 261/490 (53%) survivors of the Utøya mass shooting. We applied Pearson's chi-squared tests (categorical variables) and independent t-tests (continuous variables) to compare survivors by whether or not they reported higher perceived needs than received help for psychological reactions and physical health problems, respectively. Ordinal regression analyses were applied to examine whether socio-demographic characteristics and healthcare experiences were associated with dissatisfaction.

Results:: Altogether 127 (49%) survivors reported very high/high help needs for psychological reactions, and 43 (17%) for attack-related physical health problems. Unmet healthcare needs were associated with higher levels of posttraumatic stress, psychological distress, somatic symptoms and less social support. Survivors with immigrant backgrounds and injured survivors who were not admitted to hospital reported unmet needs for physical health problems more often. After adjustments for socio-demographic characteristics, immigrant origin was associated with dissatisfaction with post-terror healthcare. After additionally adjusting for healthcare experiences, poor rating of the overall organization and accessibility of healthcare remained significantly associated with dissatisfaction.

Conclusions:: Most survivors were satisfied with the post-terror healthcare they received, yet our findings indicate that increased attention to the physical health of non-hospitalized terrorism survivors is required. Furthermore, in future outreach, particular attention should be paid to the healthcare needs of survivors with immigrant background.

No MeSH data available.


Survivors' experiences and satisfaction with help services after the Utøya attack reported 31–32 months after the attack.
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Figure 2: Survivors' experiences and satisfaction with help services after the Utøya attack reported 31–32 months after the attack.

Mentions: Figure 2 displays the survivors' perceived experiences and overall satisfaction with the help services they received in relation to the Utøya attack. Overall, 78 (30.0%) survivors were satisfied to a very large extent, 97 (37.3%) to a large extent, 44 (16.9%) to some extent, 24 (9.2%) to a small extent and 17 (6.5 %) were not at all satisfied with the help services. No statistically significant relationship was found between satisfaction and self-perceived health or current health compared to before the attack (p = 0.267 and p = 0.444, respectively).


Healthcare Needs, Experiences and Satisfaction after Terrorism: A Longitudinal Study of Survivors from the Ut ø ya Attack
Survivors' experiences and satisfaction with help services after the Utøya attack reported 31–32 months after the attack.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5121283&req=5

Figure 2: Survivors' experiences and satisfaction with help services after the Utøya attack reported 31–32 months after the attack.
Mentions: Figure 2 displays the survivors' perceived experiences and overall satisfaction with the help services they received in relation to the Utøya attack. Overall, 78 (30.0%) survivors were satisfied to a very large extent, 97 (37.3%) to a large extent, 44 (16.9%) to some extent, 24 (9.2%) to a small extent and 17 (6.5 %) were not at all satisfied with the help services. No statistically significant relationship was found between satisfaction and self-perceived health or current health compared to before the attack (p = 0.267 and p = 0.444, respectively).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background:: Public health outreach programs have been developed in order to ensure that needs are met after disasters. However, little is known about survivors' experiences with post-terror healthcare. In the present study, our objectives were to (1) describe survivors' experiences with post-terror healthcare, (2) identify factors associated with reports of unmet healthcare needs, and (3) examine the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics, healthcare experiences and satisfaction.

Methods:: Our study comprised three waves of semi-structured interviews with 261/490 (53%) survivors of the Utøya mass shooting. We applied Pearson's chi-squared tests (categorical variables) and independent t-tests (continuous variables) to compare survivors by whether or not they reported higher perceived needs than received help for psychological reactions and physical health problems, respectively. Ordinal regression analyses were applied to examine whether socio-demographic characteristics and healthcare experiences were associated with dissatisfaction.

Results:: Altogether 127 (49%) survivors reported very high/high help needs for psychological reactions, and 43 (17%) for attack-related physical health problems. Unmet healthcare needs were associated with higher levels of posttraumatic stress, psychological distress, somatic symptoms and less social support. Survivors with immigrant backgrounds and injured survivors who were not admitted to hospital reported unmet needs for physical health problems more often. After adjustments for socio-demographic characteristics, immigrant origin was associated with dissatisfaction with post-terror healthcare. After additionally adjusting for healthcare experiences, poor rating of the overall organization and accessibility of healthcare remained significantly associated with dissatisfaction.

Conclusions:: Most survivors were satisfied with the post-terror healthcare they received, yet our findings indicate that increased attention to the physical health of non-hospitalized terrorism survivors is required. Furthermore, in future outreach, particular attention should be paid to the healthcare needs of survivors with immigrant background.

No MeSH data available.