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The lymphatic vascular system of the mouse head

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ABSTRACT

Histological studies of the lymphatic vascular system in adult mice are hampered because bones cannot be sectioned properly. Here, we decalcified the heads of 14-day-old mice, embedded them in paraffin and stained resultant serial sections with the lymphendothelial-specific antibodies Lyve-1 and Podoplanin. We show that the tissues with the highest lymphatic vascular density are the dermis and the oral mucous membranes. In contrast, the nasal mucous membrane is devoid of lymphatics, except for its most basal parts below the vomeronasal organ. The inferior nasal turbinate contains numerous lymphatics and is connected to the nasolacrimal duct (NLD), which is ensheathed by a dense network of lymphatics. The lymphatics of the eye lids and conjunctiva are connected to those of the inferior nasal turbinate. We suggest that cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) can drain via the optic nerve and NLD lymphatics, whereas CSF drained via the Fila olfactoria into the nasal mucous membrane is used for moisturization of the respiratory air. Tongue, palatine and buccal mucous membranes possess numerous lymphatics, whereas the dental pulp has none. Lymphatics are present in the maxillary gland and close to the temporomandibular joint, suggesting the augmentation of lymph flow by chewing and yawning. Lymphatics can also be found in the dura mater and in the dural septae entering into deeper parts of the brain. Our findings are discussed with regard to CSF drainage and potential routes for ocular tumor dissemination.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Lyve-1-positive lymphatics of the ear. a Overview showing the outer acoustic canal (oac), the tympanic cavity (tc), the inner ear (ie) and the stapedius muscle (sm). Arrows indicate tympanic membrane (shown at higher magnification in d, e). The outer acoustic canal (oac) contains a dense network of lymphatics. Magnification ×20. Bar 400 μm. b Stapedius muscle accompanied by lymphatic vessels. c Tympanic cavity (tc) drained by lymphatics. d Lymphatics are present at the contact site of the malleus and the tympanic membrane. e Lymphatics are present in the peripheral parts of the tympanic membrane. c–e Magnification ×100. Bar 100 μm
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Fig6: Lyve-1-positive lymphatics of the ear. a Overview showing the outer acoustic canal (oac), the tympanic cavity (tc), the inner ear (ie) and the stapedius muscle (sm). Arrows indicate tympanic membrane (shown at higher magnification in d, e). The outer acoustic canal (oac) contains a dense network of lymphatics. Magnification ×20. Bar 400 μm. b Stapedius muscle accompanied by lymphatic vessels. c Tympanic cavity (tc) drained by lymphatics. d Lymphatics are present at the contact site of the malleus and the tympanic membrane. e Lymphatics are present in the peripheral parts of the tympanic membrane. c–e Magnification ×100. Bar 100 μm

Mentions: The lymphatics of the ear have rarely been described. In the outer auditory canal, a dense lymphatic network is present and proceeds into the peripheral parts of the tympanic membrane (Fig. 6a, e). Lymphatics are also present adjacent to the auditory ossicles (Fig. 6d), the stapedius muscle (Fig. 6b) and in the mucous membrane of the tympanic cavity (Fig. 6c). The lymphatics closest to the CNS are obviously those that are located in the dura mater, although a lumen is hardly visible in these vessels. Adjacent to the superior sagittal sinus, Lyve-1-positive structures are found in the central dura mater (Fig. 7a, c-e). Such structures can also be found at other sites, such as the dura mater surrounding the olfactory bulb (data not shown). Furthermore, Lyve-1-positive structures accompanying larger blood vessels entering the cortex of the brain can be detected (Fig. 7b, f-h).Fig. 6


The lymphatic vascular system of the mouse head
Lyve-1-positive lymphatics of the ear. a Overview showing the outer acoustic canal (oac), the tympanic cavity (tc), the inner ear (ie) and the stapedius muscle (sm). Arrows indicate tympanic membrane (shown at higher magnification in d, e). The outer acoustic canal (oac) contains a dense network of lymphatics. Magnification ×20. Bar 400 μm. b Stapedius muscle accompanied by lymphatic vessels. c Tympanic cavity (tc) drained by lymphatics. d Lymphatics are present at the contact site of the malleus and the tympanic membrane. e Lymphatics are present in the peripheral parts of the tympanic membrane. c–e Magnification ×100. Bar 100 μm
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5121175&req=5

Fig6: Lyve-1-positive lymphatics of the ear. a Overview showing the outer acoustic canal (oac), the tympanic cavity (tc), the inner ear (ie) and the stapedius muscle (sm). Arrows indicate tympanic membrane (shown at higher magnification in d, e). The outer acoustic canal (oac) contains a dense network of lymphatics. Magnification ×20. Bar 400 μm. b Stapedius muscle accompanied by lymphatic vessels. c Tympanic cavity (tc) drained by lymphatics. d Lymphatics are present at the contact site of the malleus and the tympanic membrane. e Lymphatics are present in the peripheral parts of the tympanic membrane. c–e Magnification ×100. Bar 100 μm
Mentions: The lymphatics of the ear have rarely been described. In the outer auditory canal, a dense lymphatic network is present and proceeds into the peripheral parts of the tympanic membrane (Fig. 6a, e). Lymphatics are also present adjacent to the auditory ossicles (Fig. 6d), the stapedius muscle (Fig. 6b) and in the mucous membrane of the tympanic cavity (Fig. 6c). The lymphatics closest to the CNS are obviously those that are located in the dura mater, although a lumen is hardly visible in these vessels. Adjacent to the superior sagittal sinus, Lyve-1-positive structures are found in the central dura mater (Fig. 7a, c-e). Such structures can also be found at other sites, such as the dura mater surrounding the olfactory bulb (data not shown). Furthermore, Lyve-1-positive structures accompanying larger blood vessels entering the cortex of the brain can be detected (Fig. 7b, f-h).Fig. 6

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Histological studies of the lymphatic vascular system in adult mice are hampered because bones cannot be sectioned properly. Here, we decalcified the heads of 14-day-old mice, embedded them in paraffin and stained resultant serial sections with the lymphendothelial-specific antibodies Lyve-1 and Podoplanin. We show that the tissues with the highest lymphatic vascular density are the dermis and the oral mucous membranes. In contrast, the nasal mucous membrane is devoid of lymphatics, except for its most basal parts below the vomeronasal organ. The inferior nasal turbinate contains numerous lymphatics and is connected to the nasolacrimal duct (NLD), which is ensheathed by a dense network of lymphatics. The lymphatics of the eye lids and conjunctiva are connected to those of the inferior nasal turbinate. We suggest that cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) can drain via the optic nerve and NLD lymphatics, whereas CSF drained via the Fila olfactoria into the nasal mucous membrane is used for moisturization of the respiratory air. Tongue, palatine and buccal mucous membranes possess numerous lymphatics, whereas the dental pulp has none. Lymphatics are present in the maxillary gland and close to the temporomandibular joint, suggesting the augmentation of lymph flow by chewing and yawning. Lymphatics can also be found in the dura mater and in the dural septae entering into deeper parts of the brain. Our findings are discussed with regard to CSF drainage and potential routes for ocular tumor dissemination.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus