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The lymphatic vascular system of the mouse head

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ABSTRACT

Histological studies of the lymphatic vascular system in adult mice are hampered because bones cannot be sectioned properly. Here, we decalcified the heads of 14-day-old mice, embedded them in paraffin and stained resultant serial sections with the lymphendothelial-specific antibodies Lyve-1 and Podoplanin. We show that the tissues with the highest lymphatic vascular density are the dermis and the oral mucous membranes. In contrast, the nasal mucous membrane is devoid of lymphatics, except for its most basal parts below the vomeronasal organ. The inferior nasal turbinate contains numerous lymphatics and is connected to the nasolacrimal duct (NLD), which is ensheathed by a dense network of lymphatics. The lymphatics of the eye lids and conjunctiva are connected to those of the inferior nasal turbinate. We suggest that cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) can drain via the optic nerve and NLD lymphatics, whereas CSF drained via the Fila olfactoria into the nasal mucous membrane is used for moisturization of the respiratory air. Tongue, palatine and buccal mucous membranes possess numerous lymphatics, whereas the dental pulp has none. Lymphatics are present in the maxillary gland and close to the temporomandibular joint, suggesting the augmentation of lymph flow by chewing and yawning. Lymphatics can also be found in the dura mater and in the dural septae entering into deeper parts of the brain. Our findings are discussed with regard to CSF drainage and potential routes for ocular tumor dissemination.

No MeSH data available.


Lyve-1-positive lymphatics in the basal parts of the nasal mucous membrane and along the nasolacrimal duct. a Overview of the nasal mucous membrane showing the position of the vomeronasal organ (arrowheads) and the nasolacrimal duct (arrows). Magnification ×20. Bar 400 μm. b Lymphatics associated with the vomeronasal organ. Magnification ×100. Bar 100 μm. c Lymphatic plexus around the nasolacrimal duct. Magnification ×100. Bar 100 μm. d Lymphatics in the basal part of the nasal mucous membrane (ns nasal septum, pa palatine, to tongue). Magnification ×40. Bar 200 μm. e, f Immunofluorescence double-staining of lymphendothelial markers Lyve-1 (e, green) and Podoplanin (f, red) of regions near the nasolacrimal duct. Note the Lyve-1+/Podoplanin+ lymph vessels (lv) and Lyve-1−/Podoplanin− blood vessels (bv). Magnification ×400. Bar 20 μm
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Fig3: Lyve-1-positive lymphatics in the basal parts of the nasal mucous membrane and along the nasolacrimal duct. a Overview of the nasal mucous membrane showing the position of the vomeronasal organ (arrowheads) and the nasolacrimal duct (arrows). Magnification ×20. Bar 400 μm. b Lymphatics associated with the vomeronasal organ. Magnification ×100. Bar 100 μm. c Lymphatic plexus around the nasolacrimal duct. Magnification ×100. Bar 100 μm. d Lymphatics in the basal part of the nasal mucous membrane (ns nasal septum, pa palatine, to tongue). Magnification ×40. Bar 200 μm. e, f Immunofluorescence double-staining of lymphendothelial markers Lyve-1 (e, green) and Podoplanin (f, red) of regions near the nasolacrimal duct. Note the Lyve-1+/Podoplanin+ lymph vessels (lv) and Lyve-1−/Podoplanin− blood vessels (bv). Magnification ×400. Bar 20 μm

Mentions: Much of the CSF is known to be drained via the Fila olfactoria into the nasal mucous membrane (Johnston et al. 2004). We were astonished to see that the nasal mucous membrane did not contain lymphatics, except for its most basal parts below the vomero-nasal organ (Figs. 3, 4). In contrast, the mucous membrane of the vomero-nasal organ and the inferior nasal turbinates presented with numerous lymphatics (Fig. 3b, d). Here, the nasolacrimal duct (NLD) discharges lacrimal fluid into the inferior nasal turbinate. All along its way to the medial angle of the eye, the NLD is covered by a dense network of lymphatics (Fig. 3c, e, f). This lymphatic network was found to be connected to the lymphatics of the eye (see below). The mucous membranes of the paranasal sinuses also contained lymphatics, as seen here for the maxillary and the sphenoidal sinus. The lymphatics of the latter were connected to those of the pharynx (data not shown).Fig. 3


The lymphatic vascular system of the mouse head
Lyve-1-positive lymphatics in the basal parts of the nasal mucous membrane and along the nasolacrimal duct. a Overview of the nasal mucous membrane showing the position of the vomeronasal organ (arrowheads) and the nasolacrimal duct (arrows). Magnification ×20. Bar 400 μm. b Lymphatics associated with the vomeronasal organ. Magnification ×100. Bar 100 μm. c Lymphatic plexus around the nasolacrimal duct. Magnification ×100. Bar 100 μm. d Lymphatics in the basal part of the nasal mucous membrane (ns nasal septum, pa palatine, to tongue). Magnification ×40. Bar 200 μm. e, f Immunofluorescence double-staining of lymphendothelial markers Lyve-1 (e, green) and Podoplanin (f, red) of regions near the nasolacrimal duct. Note the Lyve-1+/Podoplanin+ lymph vessels (lv) and Lyve-1−/Podoplanin− blood vessels (bv). Magnification ×400. Bar 20 μm
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Fig3: Lyve-1-positive lymphatics in the basal parts of the nasal mucous membrane and along the nasolacrimal duct. a Overview of the nasal mucous membrane showing the position of the vomeronasal organ (arrowheads) and the nasolacrimal duct (arrows). Magnification ×20. Bar 400 μm. b Lymphatics associated with the vomeronasal organ. Magnification ×100. Bar 100 μm. c Lymphatic plexus around the nasolacrimal duct. Magnification ×100. Bar 100 μm. d Lymphatics in the basal part of the nasal mucous membrane (ns nasal septum, pa palatine, to tongue). Magnification ×40. Bar 200 μm. e, f Immunofluorescence double-staining of lymphendothelial markers Lyve-1 (e, green) and Podoplanin (f, red) of regions near the nasolacrimal duct. Note the Lyve-1+/Podoplanin+ lymph vessels (lv) and Lyve-1−/Podoplanin− blood vessels (bv). Magnification ×400. Bar 20 μm
Mentions: Much of the CSF is known to be drained via the Fila olfactoria into the nasal mucous membrane (Johnston et al. 2004). We were astonished to see that the nasal mucous membrane did not contain lymphatics, except for its most basal parts below the vomero-nasal organ (Figs. 3, 4). In contrast, the mucous membrane of the vomero-nasal organ and the inferior nasal turbinates presented with numerous lymphatics (Fig. 3b, d). Here, the nasolacrimal duct (NLD) discharges lacrimal fluid into the inferior nasal turbinate. All along its way to the medial angle of the eye, the NLD is covered by a dense network of lymphatics (Fig. 3c, e, f). This lymphatic network was found to be connected to the lymphatics of the eye (see below). The mucous membranes of the paranasal sinuses also contained lymphatics, as seen here for the maxillary and the sphenoidal sinus. The lymphatics of the latter were connected to those of the pharynx (data not shown).Fig. 3

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Histological studies of the lymphatic vascular system in adult mice are hampered because bones cannot be sectioned properly. Here, we decalcified the heads of 14-day-old mice, embedded them in paraffin and stained resultant serial sections with the lymphendothelial-specific antibodies Lyve-1 and Podoplanin. We show that the tissues with the highest lymphatic vascular density are the dermis and the oral mucous membranes. In contrast, the nasal mucous membrane is devoid of lymphatics, except for its most basal parts below the vomeronasal organ. The inferior nasal turbinate contains numerous lymphatics and is connected to the nasolacrimal duct (NLD), which is ensheathed by a dense network of lymphatics. The lymphatics of the eye lids and conjunctiva are connected to those of the inferior nasal turbinate. We suggest that cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) can drain via the optic nerve and NLD lymphatics, whereas CSF drained via the Fila olfactoria into the nasal mucous membrane is used for moisturization of the respiratory air. Tongue, palatine and buccal mucous membranes possess numerous lymphatics, whereas the dental pulp has none. Lymphatics are present in the maxillary gland and close to the temporomandibular joint, suggesting the augmentation of lymph flow by chewing and yawning. Lymphatics can also be found in the dura mater and in the dural septae entering into deeper parts of the brain. Our findings are discussed with regard to CSF drainage and potential routes for ocular tumor dissemination.

No MeSH data available.