Limits...
Correlation between pollution and decline of Scleractinian Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Gulf of Gabes

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

During an expedition in 2014 in the Gulf of Gabes that aimed to evaluate the impact of the pollution of the phosphate industry on the marine environment, numerous dead coral fragments were retrieved from several stations along a 18 km long transect in front of the industry complex of Gabes. Detailed taxonomy of these coral fragments shows clearly that all fragments belong to the species Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1758). Quantitative analysis of the coral fragments indicates a positive correlation with stations characterized by positive bathymetric anomalies. We suggest the presence of probable small-scaled (up to 4 m high) biogenic (palaeo-) build-ups composed mainly of coral colonies and bryozoans. Radiocarbon dating of three coral fragments show ages as old as 1897, 1985 and 1986 AD and suggests the presence of living C. caespitosa as close as 6 km to the phosphate treatment industry of Gabes at least until 1986 AD. This latter age coincides with the construction of the ammonium phosphate production plant, in 1979, in the Gulf of Gabes with an increase of the natural phosphate production. The higher impact of pollution on the marine environment in the inner part of the Gulf of Gabes likely induced the decline of C. caespitosa. This is well in agreement with enhanced siltation processes suggested by the sedimentary facies and grain-size analyses presently characterizing the Gulf of Gabes nowadays.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Distribution of the living C. caespitosa (yellow stars), fossil C. caespitosa (blue square) and location of C. caespitosa where their state (living or fossil) is unknown (red circles) (OBIS (Ocean Biogeographic Information System), (Aguirre and Jimenez, 1998; Badalamenti et al., 2011; Bitar and Zibrowius, 1997; Casado-Amezúa et al., 2015; El Lakhrach et al., 2012; Hoogenboom et al., 2010; Jiménez et al., 2014; Kersting, 2013; Kersting and Linares, 2012; Koukouras et al., 1998; Kružić and Požar-Domac, 2002; Kružić and Benkovic, 2008; Laborel, 1987; Montagna et al., 2007; Morri, 2000; Özalp and Alparslan, 2011; Peirano et al., 2001; Peirano et al., 2005; Peirano et al., 2009; Rodolfo-Metalpa et al., 2005; Rodolfo-Metalpa et al., 2008; Schiller, 1993; Zaouali, 1993; Zibrowius, 1980).
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5121140&req=5

fig0010: Distribution of the living C. caespitosa (yellow stars), fossil C. caespitosa (blue square) and location of C. caespitosa where their state (living or fossil) is unknown (red circles) (OBIS (Ocean Biogeographic Information System), (Aguirre and Jimenez, 1998; Badalamenti et al., 2011; Bitar and Zibrowius, 1997; Casado-Amezúa et al., 2015; El Lakhrach et al., 2012; Hoogenboom et al., 2010; Jiménez et al., 2014; Kersting, 2013; Kersting and Linares, 2012; Koukouras et al., 1998; Kružić and Požar-Domac, 2002; Kružić and Benkovic, 2008; Laborel, 1987; Montagna et al., 2007; Morri, 2000; Özalp and Alparslan, 2011; Peirano et al., 2001; Peirano et al., 2005; Peirano et al., 2009; Rodolfo-Metalpa et al., 2005; Rodolfo-Metalpa et al., 2008; Schiller, 1993; Zaouali, 1993; Zibrowius, 1980).

Mentions: Cladocora caespitosa is present in the whole Mediterranean basin (Fig. 2). According to the OBIS (Ocean Biogeographic Information System) database, C. caespitosa occurs along the coasts of Spain, France, Italy, Croatia, Greece, Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, Egypt, Algeria, Morocco (Gibraltar Strait) and Tunisia. However, it has to be mentioned that the OBIS dataset is incomplete and that important information such as e.g., the source of the reports, the date of observations, and the indication if the documented corals were living or dead (fossil), are usually missing. For this reason, the dataset from OBIS should be used with caution. However, the database of the IUCN gives more information about the distribution of C. caespitosa and confirms the living record of this species in the different regions of the Mediterranean Sea. Living C. caespitosa have been observed in Greece, in Gulf of Atalanti (Laborel, 1987), along the Italian coast, in the Gulf of La Spezia (Morri, 2000; Peirano et al., 2001; Peirano et al., 2005; Rodolfo-Metalpa et al., 2005), along the Croatian coast (Kružić and Požar-Domac 2002; Kružić and Benkovic, 2008; Schiller 1993), in the Bay of Piran in Slovenia (Schiller, 1993), in the north-western Mediterranean Sea, along the Spanish coast (Kersting, 2013; Kersting and Linares, 2012), along Cyprus coast (Jiménez et al., 2014) and along Turkish coast (Özalp and Alparslan, 2011). Large banks of the C. caespitosa have also been recorded in the Balearic Islands and Mallorca, and at Banyuls-Sur-Mer in France (Casado-Amezúa et al., 2015) and colonies have been found in Lebanon, North Israel and Libya (Badalamenti et al., 2011; Bitar and Zibrowius, 1997). However, the IUCN mentions the presence of living C. caespitosa along the Tunisian coast based on the work of Zibrowius (1980), which is the same reference as OBIS database. Supplementary recent references confirm the presence of living C. caespitosa in the Gulf of Trieste (Montagna et al., 2007) and in the Gulf of La Spezia in Italy (Hoogenboom et al., 2010; Rodolfo-Metalpa et al., 2008). Living colonies of C. caespitosa have been indicated in the Chalkidiki Pensula in Greece (Koukouras et al., 1998). Peirano et al. (2009) indicate major fossil deposits in Spain, France Italia, Tunisia, Greece and Cyprus. In addition, Aguirre and Jimenez (1998) mention fossil C. caespitosa south-eastern part of Spain. Living banks of C. caespitosa in Croatia and Greece was also mentioned by Peirano et al. (2009). Living C. caespitosa was also mentioned in the Gulf of Gabes in Tunisia (El Lakhrach et al., 2012; Zaouali, 1993) (Fig. 2).


Correlation between pollution and decline of Scleractinian Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Gulf of Gabes
Distribution of the living C. caespitosa (yellow stars), fossil C. caespitosa (blue square) and location of C. caespitosa where their state (living or fossil) is unknown (red circles) (OBIS (Ocean Biogeographic Information System), (Aguirre and Jimenez, 1998; Badalamenti et al., 2011; Bitar and Zibrowius, 1997; Casado-Amezúa et al., 2015; El Lakhrach et al., 2012; Hoogenboom et al., 2010; Jiménez et al., 2014; Kersting, 2013; Kersting and Linares, 2012; Koukouras et al., 1998; Kružić and Požar-Domac, 2002; Kružić and Benkovic, 2008; Laborel, 1987; Montagna et al., 2007; Morri, 2000; Özalp and Alparslan, 2011; Peirano et al., 2001; Peirano et al., 2005; Peirano et al., 2009; Rodolfo-Metalpa et al., 2005; Rodolfo-Metalpa et al., 2008; Schiller, 1993; Zaouali, 1993; Zibrowius, 1980).
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5121140&req=5

fig0010: Distribution of the living C. caespitosa (yellow stars), fossil C. caespitosa (blue square) and location of C. caespitosa where their state (living or fossil) is unknown (red circles) (OBIS (Ocean Biogeographic Information System), (Aguirre and Jimenez, 1998; Badalamenti et al., 2011; Bitar and Zibrowius, 1997; Casado-Amezúa et al., 2015; El Lakhrach et al., 2012; Hoogenboom et al., 2010; Jiménez et al., 2014; Kersting, 2013; Kersting and Linares, 2012; Koukouras et al., 1998; Kružić and Požar-Domac, 2002; Kružić and Benkovic, 2008; Laborel, 1987; Montagna et al., 2007; Morri, 2000; Özalp and Alparslan, 2011; Peirano et al., 2001; Peirano et al., 2005; Peirano et al., 2009; Rodolfo-Metalpa et al., 2005; Rodolfo-Metalpa et al., 2008; Schiller, 1993; Zaouali, 1993; Zibrowius, 1980).
Mentions: Cladocora caespitosa is present in the whole Mediterranean basin (Fig. 2). According to the OBIS (Ocean Biogeographic Information System) database, C. caespitosa occurs along the coasts of Spain, France, Italy, Croatia, Greece, Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, Egypt, Algeria, Morocco (Gibraltar Strait) and Tunisia. However, it has to be mentioned that the OBIS dataset is incomplete and that important information such as e.g., the source of the reports, the date of observations, and the indication if the documented corals were living or dead (fossil), are usually missing. For this reason, the dataset from OBIS should be used with caution. However, the database of the IUCN gives more information about the distribution of C. caespitosa and confirms the living record of this species in the different regions of the Mediterranean Sea. Living C. caespitosa have been observed in Greece, in Gulf of Atalanti (Laborel, 1987), along the Italian coast, in the Gulf of La Spezia (Morri, 2000; Peirano et al., 2001; Peirano et al., 2005; Rodolfo-Metalpa et al., 2005), along the Croatian coast (Kružić and Požar-Domac 2002; Kružić and Benkovic, 2008; Schiller 1993), in the Bay of Piran in Slovenia (Schiller, 1993), in the north-western Mediterranean Sea, along the Spanish coast (Kersting, 2013; Kersting and Linares, 2012), along Cyprus coast (Jiménez et al., 2014) and along Turkish coast (Özalp and Alparslan, 2011). Large banks of the C. caespitosa have also been recorded in the Balearic Islands and Mallorca, and at Banyuls-Sur-Mer in France (Casado-Amezúa et al., 2015) and colonies have been found in Lebanon, North Israel and Libya (Badalamenti et al., 2011; Bitar and Zibrowius, 1997). However, the IUCN mentions the presence of living C. caespitosa along the Tunisian coast based on the work of Zibrowius (1980), which is the same reference as OBIS database. Supplementary recent references confirm the presence of living C. caespitosa in the Gulf of Trieste (Montagna et al., 2007) and in the Gulf of La Spezia in Italy (Hoogenboom et al., 2010; Rodolfo-Metalpa et al., 2008). Living colonies of C. caespitosa have been indicated in the Chalkidiki Pensula in Greece (Koukouras et al., 1998). Peirano et al. (2009) indicate major fossil deposits in Spain, France Italia, Tunisia, Greece and Cyprus. In addition, Aguirre and Jimenez (1998) mention fossil C. caespitosa south-eastern part of Spain. Living banks of C. caespitosa in Croatia and Greece was also mentioned by Peirano et al. (2009). Living C. caespitosa was also mentioned in the Gulf of Gabes in Tunisia (El Lakhrach et al., 2012; Zaouali, 1993) (Fig. 2).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

During an expedition in 2014 in the Gulf of Gabes that aimed to evaluate the impact of the pollution of the phosphate industry on the marine environment, numerous dead coral fragments were retrieved from several stations along a 18 km long transect in front of the industry complex of Gabes. Detailed taxonomy of these coral fragments shows clearly that all fragments belong to the species Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1758). Quantitative analysis of the coral fragments indicates a positive correlation with stations characterized by positive bathymetric anomalies. We suggest the presence of probable small-scaled (up to 4 m high) biogenic (palaeo-) build-ups composed mainly of coral colonies and bryozoans. Radiocarbon dating of three coral fragments show ages as old as 1897, 1985 and 1986 AD and suggests the presence of living C. caespitosa as close as 6 km to the phosphate treatment industry of Gabes at least until 1986 AD. This latter age coincides with the construction of the ammonium phosphate production plant, in 1979, in the Gulf of Gabes with an increase of the natural phosphate production. The higher impact of pollution on the marine environment in the inner part of the Gulf of Gabes likely induced the decline of C. caespitosa. This is well in agreement with enhanced siltation processes suggested by the sedimentary facies and grain-size analyses presently characterizing the Gulf of Gabes nowadays.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus