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Exposure to Ketamine Anesthesia Affects Rat Impulsive Behavior

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Introduction: : Ketamine is a general anesthetic (GA) that activates several neurotransmitter pathways in various part of the brain. The acute effects as GA are the most well-known and sought-after: to induce loss of responsiveness and to produce immobility during invasive procedures. However, there is a concern that repeated exposure might induce behavioral changes that could outlast their acute effect. Most research in this field describes how GA affects cognition and memory. Our work is to access if general anesthesia with ketamine can disrupt the motivational behavior trait, more specifically measuring impulsive behavior.

Methods: : Aiming to evaluate the effects of exposure to repeat anesthetic procedures with ketamine in motivational behavior, we tested animals in a paradigm of impulsive behavior, the variable delay-to-signal (VDS). In addition, accumbal and striatal medium spiny neurons morphology was assessed.

Results: : Our results demonstrated that previous exposure to ketamine deep-anesthesia affects inhibitory control (impulsive behavior). Specifically, ketamine exposed animals maintain a subnormal impulsive rate in the initial periods of the delays. However, in longer delays while control animals progressively refrain their premature unrewarded actions, ketamine-exposed animals show a different profile of response with higher premature unrewarded actions in the last seconds. Animals exposed to multiple ketamine anesthesia also failed to show an increase in premature unrewarded actions between the initial and final periods of 3 s delays. These behavioral alterations are paralleled by an increase in dendritic length of medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAc).

Conclusions: : This demonstrates that ketamine anesthesia acutely affects impulsive behavior. Interestingly, it also opens up the prospect of using ketamine as an agent with the ability to modulate impulsivity trait.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Behavior evaluation performed to validate the model of anesthesia exposure: animals exposed to ketamine anesthesia performed similarly to control animals in the Elevated Plus Maze (A), Novel Object Recognition Test (B), Open Field (C,D), Forced Swimming Test (E,F).
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Figure 4: Behavior evaluation performed to validate the model of anesthesia exposure: animals exposed to ketamine anesthesia performed similarly to control animals in the Elevated Plus Maze (A), Novel Object Recognition Test (B), Open Field (C,D), Forced Swimming Test (E,F).

Mentions: In order to rule out the effect of ketamine anesthesia behavioral dimensions that could interact with VDS results, we performed evaluations in a different group of animals not assigned to perform the VDS paradigm. Results show that animals exposed to ketamine anesthesia have similar performance to control group concerning Elevated Plus Maze (Figure 4A), Novel Object Recognition Test (Figure 4B), Forced Swimming test (Figures 4C,D) and Open field (Figures 4E,F).


Exposure to Ketamine Anesthesia Affects Rat Impulsive Behavior
Behavior evaluation performed to validate the model of anesthesia exposure: animals exposed to ketamine anesthesia performed similarly to control animals in the Elevated Plus Maze (A), Novel Object Recognition Test (B), Open Field (C,D), Forced Swimming Test (E,F).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5121127&req=5

Figure 4: Behavior evaluation performed to validate the model of anesthesia exposure: animals exposed to ketamine anesthesia performed similarly to control animals in the Elevated Plus Maze (A), Novel Object Recognition Test (B), Open Field (C,D), Forced Swimming Test (E,F).
Mentions: In order to rule out the effect of ketamine anesthesia behavioral dimensions that could interact with VDS results, we performed evaluations in a different group of animals not assigned to perform the VDS paradigm. Results show that animals exposed to ketamine anesthesia have similar performance to control group concerning Elevated Plus Maze (Figure 4A), Novel Object Recognition Test (Figure 4B), Forced Swimming test (Figures 4C,D) and Open field (Figures 4E,F).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Introduction: : Ketamine is a general anesthetic (GA) that activates several neurotransmitter pathways in various part of the brain. The acute effects as GA are the most well-known and sought-after: to induce loss of responsiveness and to produce immobility during invasive procedures. However, there is a concern that repeated exposure might induce behavioral changes that could outlast their acute effect. Most research in this field describes how GA affects cognition and memory. Our work is to access if general anesthesia with ketamine can disrupt the motivational behavior trait, more specifically measuring impulsive behavior.

Methods: : Aiming to evaluate the effects of exposure to repeat anesthetic procedures with ketamine in motivational behavior, we tested animals in a paradigm of impulsive behavior, the variable delay-to-signal (VDS). In addition, accumbal and striatal medium spiny neurons morphology was assessed.

Results: : Our results demonstrated that previous exposure to ketamine deep-anesthesia affects inhibitory control (impulsive behavior). Specifically, ketamine exposed animals maintain a subnormal impulsive rate in the initial periods of the delays. However, in longer delays while control animals progressively refrain their premature unrewarded actions, ketamine-exposed animals show a different profile of response with higher premature unrewarded actions in the last seconds. Animals exposed to multiple ketamine anesthesia also failed to show an increase in premature unrewarded actions between the initial and final periods of 3 s delays. These behavioral alterations are paralleled by an increase in dendritic length of medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAc).

Conclusions: : This demonstrates that ketamine anesthesia acutely affects impulsive behavior. Interestingly, it also opens up the prospect of using ketamine as an agent with the ability to modulate impulsivity trait.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus