Limits...
Exhaustion Experiences in Junior Athletes: The Importance of Motivation and Self-Control Competencies

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Quality of motivation, self-control competencies, as well as past performance experience influence sport participation outcomes in developing athletes. Studies have shown that junior athletes high in self-determined motivation are less prone to experience burnout, while self-control competencies help developing athletes to be conscious and deliberate in their self-regulatory efforts toward elite sport performances and avoid negative sport participation outcomes. Combining the self-determination theory framework and psychosocial theories of self-regulation, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine how various types of motivation and self-control competencies together are associated with the development of burnout symptoms in junior athletes. High-level Norwegian winter-sport athletes from elite sport academies (N = 199; female n = 72; 16–20 years of age) consented to participate. Associations between six types of motivational regulation, self-control, and indices of exhaustion were investigated. We hypothesized that athletes’ self-control competencies are important to operate successfully, and influenced by different types of motivation, they are expected to help athletes avoid negative sport participation outcomes such as emotional and physical exhaustion. Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to analyze these relationships, and results revealed some multifaceted associations. When identifying antecedents of sport participation exhaustion and burnout, there is a need to go beyond the unique framework of motivation theories, and explore what cognitive competencies ensure fulfillment of motivation desires. In the current study, differences in junior athletes’ quality of motivation influenced self-control competencies when predicting exhaustion. Interestingly, young athletes driven by self-determined (intrinsic, integrated, and identified), and controlled (introjected and amotivation) regulations in association with self-control offered the strongest negative and positive associations with exhaustion, respectively. Findings clearly indicate that motivation and self-control competencies are meaningfully interrelated when assessing burnout propensity in young developing athletes.

No MeSH data available.


The hypothesized structural model.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5121120&req=5

Figure 1: The hypothesized structural model.

Mentions: Relevant practice experiences over time influences athletes’ development and chances to successfully reach the elite level (Ericsson, 2013). Interestingly, some people with unique qualities have been found to reach world-class performance within 6 years (Ericsson, 2006). In addition to practice experiences, the nature of elite competitions and competitive experiences provide athletes with psychological skills necessary for success (Gould et al., 2002). These skills develop throughout an athlete’s career, as athletes with more competitive experiences have a greater chance of learning key psychological skills necessary for success (e.g., appropriate focus, self-control). In Norway, children are allowed to compete at the age of six, while they cannot be ranked before they are 11 years old in most sports. Hence, from the age of eleven they will acquire the more genuine experiences of skiing competitions in Norway. However, junior athletes developing exceptional skills will likely struggle without motivation as well as self-control to train and compete at the highest level. These concepts have been extensively studied in the sport context, but no study has addressed the complexity of athletes’ motivation in association with the quality of self-control competencies to predict sport participation outcomes. As such, the current study examines associations between the type of motivation, self-control, and symptoms of burnout in junior Norwegian winter sport athletes (Figure 1). We hypothesized that the associations between athletes’ self-control competencies and symptoms of burnout are dependent on different motivational regulations. That is, more self-determined types of motivation will energize self-control competencies, and when combined they will yield a negative association to burnout. On the other hand, more controlled forms of motivation will induce ego-depletion and offer a positive association to burnout.


Exhaustion Experiences in Junior Athletes: The Importance of Motivation and Self-Control Competencies
The hypothesized structural model.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5121120&req=5

Figure 1: The hypothesized structural model.
Mentions: Relevant practice experiences over time influences athletes’ development and chances to successfully reach the elite level (Ericsson, 2013). Interestingly, some people with unique qualities have been found to reach world-class performance within 6 years (Ericsson, 2006). In addition to practice experiences, the nature of elite competitions and competitive experiences provide athletes with psychological skills necessary for success (Gould et al., 2002). These skills develop throughout an athlete’s career, as athletes with more competitive experiences have a greater chance of learning key psychological skills necessary for success (e.g., appropriate focus, self-control). In Norway, children are allowed to compete at the age of six, while they cannot be ranked before they are 11 years old in most sports. Hence, from the age of eleven they will acquire the more genuine experiences of skiing competitions in Norway. However, junior athletes developing exceptional skills will likely struggle without motivation as well as self-control to train and compete at the highest level. These concepts have been extensively studied in the sport context, but no study has addressed the complexity of athletes’ motivation in association with the quality of self-control competencies to predict sport participation outcomes. As such, the current study examines associations between the type of motivation, self-control, and symptoms of burnout in junior Norwegian winter sport athletes (Figure 1). We hypothesized that the associations between athletes’ self-control competencies and symptoms of burnout are dependent on different motivational regulations. That is, more self-determined types of motivation will energize self-control competencies, and when combined they will yield a negative association to burnout. On the other hand, more controlled forms of motivation will induce ego-depletion and offer a positive association to burnout.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Quality of motivation, self-control competencies, as well as past performance experience influence sport participation outcomes in developing athletes. Studies have shown that junior athletes high in self-determined motivation are less prone to experience burnout, while self-control competencies help developing athletes to be conscious and deliberate in their self-regulatory efforts toward elite sport performances and avoid negative sport participation outcomes. Combining the self-determination theory framework and psychosocial theories of self-regulation, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine how various types of motivation and self-control competencies together are associated with the development of burnout symptoms in junior athletes. High-level Norwegian winter-sport athletes from elite sport academies (N = 199; female n = 72; 16–20 years of age) consented to participate. Associations between six types of motivational regulation, self-control, and indices of exhaustion were investigated. We hypothesized that athletes’ self-control competencies are important to operate successfully, and influenced by different types of motivation, they are expected to help athletes avoid negative sport participation outcomes such as emotional and physical exhaustion. Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to analyze these relationships, and results revealed some multifaceted associations. When identifying antecedents of sport participation exhaustion and burnout, there is a need to go beyond the unique framework of motivation theories, and explore what cognitive competencies ensure fulfillment of motivation desires. In the current study, differences in junior athletes’ quality of motivation influenced self-control competencies when predicting exhaustion. Interestingly, young athletes driven by self-determined (intrinsic, integrated, and identified), and controlled (introjected and amotivation) regulations in association with self-control offered the strongest negative and positive associations with exhaustion, respectively. Findings clearly indicate that motivation and self-control competencies are meaningfully interrelated when assessing burnout propensity in young developing athletes.

No MeSH data available.