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Interleukin-15 (IL-15) Strongly Correlates with Increasing HIV-1 Viremia and Markers of Inflammation

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Objective: IL-15 has been postulated to play an important role in HIV-1 infection, yet there are conflicting reports regarding its expression levels in these patients. We sought to measure the level of IL-15 in a large, well characterised cohort of HIV-1 infected patients and correlate this with well known markers of inflammation, including CRP, D-dimer, sCD163 and sCD14.

Design and methods: IL-15 levels were measured in 501 people (460 patients with HIV-1 infection and 41 uninfected controls). The HIV-1 infected patients were divided into 4 groups based on viral load: <50 copies/ml, 51–10,000 copies/ml, 10,001–100,000 copies/ml and >100,000 copies/ml. The Mann Whitney test (non-parametric) was used to identify significant relationships between different patient groups.

Results: IL-15 levels were significantly higher in patients with viral loads >100,000 copies/ml (3.02 ± 1.53 pg/ml) compared to both uninfected controls (1.69 ± 0.37 pg/ml, p<0.001) or patients with a viral load <50 copies/ml (1.59 ± 0.40 pg/ml (p<0.001). There was a significant correlation between HIV-1 viremia and IL-15 levels (Spearman r = 0.54, p<0.001) and between CD4+ T cell counts and IL-15 levels (Spearman r = -0.56, p<0.001).

Conclusions: IL-15 levels are significantly elevated in HIV-1 infected patients with viral loads >100,000 copies/ml compared to uninfected controls, with a significant direct correlation noted between IL-15 and HIV-1 viremia and an inverse correlation between IL-15 levels and CD4+ T cell counts. These data support a potential role for IL-15 in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated immune activation.

No MeSH data available.


IL-15 levels in HIV-1 infected patients.HIV-1 infected patients were divided into 4 groups based on viral load and comparisons were made using the Mann-Whitney test (A)). In(B), comparisons were made for patients who were treatment naive. IL-15 levels were positively correlated with HIV-1 viral load (C) and negatively correlated with CD4+ T cell counts (D). Note that the viral load is graphed on a logarithmic scale (log 10) on the X-axis in (C).
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pone.0167091.g001: IL-15 levels in HIV-1 infected patients.HIV-1 infected patients were divided into 4 groups based on viral load and comparisons were made using the Mann-Whitney test (A)). In(B), comparisons were made for patients who were treatment naive. IL-15 levels were positively correlated with HIV-1 viral load (C) and negatively correlated with CD4+ T cell counts (D). Note that the viral load is graphed on a logarithmic scale (log 10) on the X-axis in (C).

Mentions: IL-15 levels were measured and comparisons were made after stratifying HIV-1 positive patients into four groups, based on viral load, and comparing their levels with those of uninfected controls (Fig 1A). The mean level ± standard deviation (SD) of IL-15 was 1.69 ± 0.37 pg/ml in the uninfected controls, 1.59 ± 0.40 pg/ml in the <50 copies/ml group, 1.63 ± 0.66 pg/ml in the 51–10,000 copies/ml group, 1.84 ± 0.72 pg/ml in the 10,001–100,000 copies/ml group and 3.02 ± 1.53 pg/ml in the >100,000 copies/ml group. There was also a statistically significant increase in IL-15 levels noted between patients with <50 copies/ml and the 10,001–100,000 copies/ml group (p = 0.01) and between the <50 copies/ml group and the group with >100,000 copies/ml (p<0.0001) (Fig 1A).


Interleukin-15 (IL-15) Strongly Correlates with Increasing HIV-1 Viremia and Markers of Inflammation
IL-15 levels in HIV-1 infected patients.HIV-1 infected patients were divided into 4 groups based on viral load and comparisons were made using the Mann-Whitney test (A)). In(B), comparisons were made for patients who were treatment naive. IL-15 levels were positively correlated with HIV-1 viral load (C) and negatively correlated with CD4+ T cell counts (D). Note that the viral load is graphed on a logarithmic scale (log 10) on the X-axis in (C).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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pone.0167091.g001: IL-15 levels in HIV-1 infected patients.HIV-1 infected patients were divided into 4 groups based on viral load and comparisons were made using the Mann-Whitney test (A)). In(B), comparisons were made for patients who were treatment naive. IL-15 levels were positively correlated with HIV-1 viral load (C) and negatively correlated with CD4+ T cell counts (D). Note that the viral load is graphed on a logarithmic scale (log 10) on the X-axis in (C).
Mentions: IL-15 levels were measured and comparisons were made after stratifying HIV-1 positive patients into four groups, based on viral load, and comparing their levels with those of uninfected controls (Fig 1A). The mean level ± standard deviation (SD) of IL-15 was 1.69 ± 0.37 pg/ml in the uninfected controls, 1.59 ± 0.40 pg/ml in the <50 copies/ml group, 1.63 ± 0.66 pg/ml in the 51–10,000 copies/ml group, 1.84 ± 0.72 pg/ml in the 10,001–100,000 copies/ml group and 3.02 ± 1.53 pg/ml in the >100,000 copies/ml group. There was also a statistically significant increase in IL-15 levels noted between patients with <50 copies/ml and the 10,001–100,000 copies/ml group (p = 0.01) and between the <50 copies/ml group and the group with >100,000 copies/ml (p<0.0001) (Fig 1A).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Objective: IL-15 has been postulated to play an important role in HIV-1 infection, yet there are conflicting reports regarding its expression levels in these patients. We sought to measure the level of IL-15 in a large, well characterised cohort of HIV-1 infected patients and correlate this with well known markers of inflammation, including CRP, D-dimer, sCD163 and sCD14.

Design and methods: IL-15 levels were measured in 501 people (460 patients with HIV-1 infection and 41 uninfected controls). The HIV-1 infected patients were divided into 4 groups based on viral load: &lt;50 copies/ml, 51&ndash;10,000 copies/ml, 10,001&ndash;100,000 copies/ml and &gt;100,000 copies/ml. The Mann Whitney test (non-parametric) was used to identify significant relationships between different patient groups.

Results: IL-15 levels were significantly higher in patients with viral loads &gt;100,000 copies/ml (3.02 &plusmn; 1.53 pg/ml) compared to both uninfected controls (1.69 &plusmn; 0.37 pg/ml, p&lt;0.001) or patients with a viral load &lt;50 copies/ml (1.59 &plusmn; 0.40 pg/ml (p&lt;0.001). There was a significant correlation between HIV-1 viremia and IL-15 levels (Spearman r = 0.54, p&lt;0.001) and between CD4+ T cell counts and IL-15 levels (Spearman r = -0.56, p&lt;0.001).

Conclusions: IL-15 levels are significantly elevated in HIV-1 infected patients with viral loads &gt;100,000 copies/ml compared to uninfected controls, with a significant direct correlation noted between IL-15 and HIV-1 viremia and an inverse correlation between IL-15 levels and CD4+ T cell counts. These data support a potential role for IL-15 in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated immune activation.

No MeSH data available.