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Paradoxical Sleep Deprivation Causes Cardiac Dysfunction and the Impairment Is Attenuated by Resistance Training

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Paradoxical sleep deprivation activates the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, subsequently interfering with the cardiovascular system. The beneficial effects of resistance training are related to hemodynamic, metabolic and hormonal homeostasis. We hypothesized that resistance training can prevent the cardiac remodeling and dysfunction caused by paradoxical sleep deprivation.

Methods: Male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups: control (C), resistance training (RT), paradoxical sleep deprivation for 96 hours (PSD96) and both resistance training and sleep deprivation (RT/PSD96). Doppler echocardiograms, hemodynamics measurements, cardiac histomorphometry, hormonal profile and molecular analysis were evaluated.

Results: Compared to the C group, PSD96 group had a higher left ventricular systolic pressure, heart rate and left atrium index. In contrast, the left ventricle systolic area and the left ventricle cavity diameter were reduced in the PSD96 group. Hypertrophy and fibrosis were also observed. Along with these alterations, reduced levels of serum testosterone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), as well as increased corticosterone and angiotensin II, were observed in the PSD96 group. Prophylactic resistance training attenuated most of these changes, except angiotensin II, fibrosis, heart rate and concentric remodeling of left ventricle, confirmed by the increased of NFATc3 and GATA-4, proteins involved in the pathologic cardiac hypertrophy pathway.

Conclusions: Resistance training effectively attenuates cardiac dysfunction and hormonal imbalance induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Ventricular remodeling, fibrosis and expression of proteins involved in the pathologic cardiac hypertrophy pathway.Representative images (40x magnification) of HE-stained cross sections (A) of the LV of rats without manipulation (C; n = 6) or submitted to RT (RT; n = 6) or PSD (PSD96; n = 6) or RT followed by PSD (RT/PSD96; n = 6). (B) The images (40x magnification) are the LV tissue sections stained with picrosirius red. Red color stretches are collagen depositions. (C) Images (1.25x magnification) of HE-stained the LV cavity diameter of the heart. (D) Myocyte CSA calculated from the HE-stained sections as shown in A. (E) Histogram showing collagen volume fraction in the LV tissues. (F) Results of the analysis of the LV cavity diameter as shown in C. (G) Quantification of NFATc3 expression. (H) Representative blots of NFATc3, GATA-4 and GAPDH. (I) Quantification of GATA-4 expression. For analysis, we utilized one way ANOVA followed by Duncan’s post hoc. The data are shown as the mean ± standard deviation, significance accepted: p ≤ 0.05. *—Different from the C group; †—Different from the RT group; ‡—Different from the PSD96 group.
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pone.0167029.g003: Ventricular remodeling, fibrosis and expression of proteins involved in the pathologic cardiac hypertrophy pathway.Representative images (40x magnification) of HE-stained cross sections (A) of the LV of rats without manipulation (C; n = 6) or submitted to RT (RT; n = 6) or PSD (PSD96; n = 6) or RT followed by PSD (RT/PSD96; n = 6). (B) The images (40x magnification) are the LV tissue sections stained with picrosirius red. Red color stretches are collagen depositions. (C) Images (1.25x magnification) of HE-stained the LV cavity diameter of the heart. (D) Myocyte CSA calculated from the HE-stained sections as shown in A. (E) Histogram showing collagen volume fraction in the LV tissues. (F) Results of the analysis of the LV cavity diameter as shown in C. (G) Quantification of NFATc3 expression. (H) Representative blots of NFATc3, GATA-4 and GAPDH. (I) Quantification of GATA-4 expression. For analysis, we utilized one way ANOVA followed by Duncan’s post hoc. The data are shown as the mean ± standard deviation, significance accepted: p ≤ 0.05. *—Different from the C group; †—Different from the RT group; ‡—Different from the PSD96 group.

Mentions: The LV cardiomyocytes CSA were higher in the RT, PSD96 and RT/PSD96 groups when compared to the C group (Fig 3A and 3D). However, this increase was more expressive in PSD96 group, which was differ from RT and RT/PSD96 groups. These latter were also different from each other (F(3,19) = 98.841, p = 0.001).


Paradoxical Sleep Deprivation Causes Cardiac Dysfunction and the Impairment Is Attenuated by Resistance Training
Ventricular remodeling, fibrosis and expression of proteins involved in the pathologic cardiac hypertrophy pathway.Representative images (40x magnification) of HE-stained cross sections (A) of the LV of rats without manipulation (C; n = 6) or submitted to RT (RT; n = 6) or PSD (PSD96; n = 6) or RT followed by PSD (RT/PSD96; n = 6). (B) The images (40x magnification) are the LV tissue sections stained with picrosirius red. Red color stretches are collagen depositions. (C) Images (1.25x magnification) of HE-stained the LV cavity diameter of the heart. (D) Myocyte CSA calculated from the HE-stained sections as shown in A. (E) Histogram showing collagen volume fraction in the LV tissues. (F) Results of the analysis of the LV cavity diameter as shown in C. (G) Quantification of NFATc3 expression. (H) Representative blots of NFATc3, GATA-4 and GAPDH. (I) Quantification of GATA-4 expression. For analysis, we utilized one way ANOVA followed by Duncan’s post hoc. The data are shown as the mean ± standard deviation, significance accepted: p ≤ 0.05. *—Different from the C group; †—Different from the RT group; ‡—Different from the PSD96 group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5120843&req=5

pone.0167029.g003: Ventricular remodeling, fibrosis and expression of proteins involved in the pathologic cardiac hypertrophy pathway.Representative images (40x magnification) of HE-stained cross sections (A) of the LV of rats without manipulation (C; n = 6) or submitted to RT (RT; n = 6) or PSD (PSD96; n = 6) or RT followed by PSD (RT/PSD96; n = 6). (B) The images (40x magnification) are the LV tissue sections stained with picrosirius red. Red color stretches are collagen depositions. (C) Images (1.25x magnification) of HE-stained the LV cavity diameter of the heart. (D) Myocyte CSA calculated from the HE-stained sections as shown in A. (E) Histogram showing collagen volume fraction in the LV tissues. (F) Results of the analysis of the LV cavity diameter as shown in C. (G) Quantification of NFATc3 expression. (H) Representative blots of NFATc3, GATA-4 and GAPDH. (I) Quantification of GATA-4 expression. For analysis, we utilized one way ANOVA followed by Duncan’s post hoc. The data are shown as the mean ± standard deviation, significance accepted: p ≤ 0.05. *—Different from the C group; †—Different from the RT group; ‡—Different from the PSD96 group.
Mentions: The LV cardiomyocytes CSA were higher in the RT, PSD96 and RT/PSD96 groups when compared to the C group (Fig 3A and 3D). However, this increase was more expressive in PSD96 group, which was differ from RT and RT/PSD96 groups. These latter were also different from each other (F(3,19) = 98.841, p = 0.001).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Paradoxical sleep deprivation activates the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, subsequently interfering with the cardiovascular system. The beneficial effects of resistance training are related to hemodynamic, metabolic and hormonal homeostasis. We hypothesized that resistance training can prevent the cardiac remodeling and dysfunction caused by paradoxical sleep deprivation.

Methods: Male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups: control (C), resistance training (RT), paradoxical sleep deprivation for 96 hours (PSD96) and both resistance training and sleep deprivation (RT/PSD96). Doppler echocardiograms, hemodynamics measurements, cardiac histomorphometry, hormonal profile and molecular analysis were evaluated.

Results: Compared to the C group, PSD96 group had a higher left ventricular systolic pressure, heart rate and left atrium index. In contrast, the left ventricle systolic area and the left ventricle cavity diameter were reduced in the PSD96 group. Hypertrophy and fibrosis were also observed. Along with these alterations, reduced levels of serum testosterone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), as well as increased corticosterone and angiotensin II, were observed in the PSD96 group. Prophylactic resistance training attenuated most of these changes, except angiotensin II, fibrosis, heart rate and concentric remodeling of left ventricle, confirmed by the increased of NFATc3 and GATA-4, proteins involved in the pathologic cardiac hypertrophy pathway.

Conclusions: Resistance training effectively attenuates cardiac dysfunction and hormonal imbalance induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus