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Phylogeography of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is one of the most severe viral zoonozes. It is prevalent throughout Africa, Asia and southern Europe. Limited availability of sequence data has hindered phylogeographic studies. The complete genomic sequence of all three segments of 14 Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus strains isolated from 1958–2000 in Russia, Central Asia and Africa was identified. Each genomic segment was independently subjected to continuous Bayesian phylogeographic analysis. The origin of each genomic segment was traced to Africa about 1,000–5,000 years ago. The virus was first introduced to South and Central Asia in the Middle Ages, and then spread to China, India and Russia. Reverse transfers of genomic segments from Asia to Africa were also observed. The European CCHFV genotype V was introduced to Europe via the Astrakhan region in South Russia 280–400 years ago and subsequently gradually spread westward in Russia, to Turkey and the Balkans less than 150 years ago. Only a few recombination events could be suggested in S and L genomic segments, while segment reassortment was very common. The median height of a non-reassortant phylogenetic tree node was 68–156 years. There were reassortment events within the European CCHFV lineage, but not with viruses from other locations. Therefore, CCHFV in Europe is a recently emerged zoonosis that represents a spillover from the global gene pool.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic maps of CCHFV segment spread projected by Bayesian phylogeographic analysis.Panels indicate spread patterns inferred for S, M and L segments. Time of transfers (defined by age of a recipient node) is indicated by line color and style. The draft map was obtained at Wikimedia commons.
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pone.0166744.g002: Schematic maps of CCHFV segment spread projected by Bayesian phylogeographic analysis.Panels indicate spread patterns inferred for S, M and L segments. Time of transfers (defined by age of a recipient node) is indicated by line color and style. The draft map was obtained at Wikimedia commons.

Mentions: The patterns of viral spread suggested by phylogeographic analysis were plotted for each segment (Fig 2). Routes of viral spread in Africa included many long distance jumps and branches with a duration exceeding one thousand years, and were generally discordant in the three genomic segments. Obviously, the current sample of African strains is not sufficient to analyze viral spread in Africa.


Phylogeography of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus
Schematic maps of CCHFV segment spread projected by Bayesian phylogeographic analysis.Panels indicate spread patterns inferred for S, M and L segments. Time of transfers (defined by age of a recipient node) is indicated by line color and style. The draft map was obtained at Wikimedia commons.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5120814&req=5

pone.0166744.g002: Schematic maps of CCHFV segment spread projected by Bayesian phylogeographic analysis.Panels indicate spread patterns inferred for S, M and L segments. Time of transfers (defined by age of a recipient node) is indicated by line color and style. The draft map was obtained at Wikimedia commons.
Mentions: The patterns of viral spread suggested by phylogeographic analysis were plotted for each segment (Fig 2). Routes of viral spread in Africa included many long distance jumps and branches with a duration exceeding one thousand years, and were generally discordant in the three genomic segments. Obviously, the current sample of African strains is not sufficient to analyze viral spread in Africa.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is one of the most severe viral zoonozes. It is prevalent throughout Africa, Asia and southern Europe. Limited availability of sequence data has hindered phylogeographic studies. The complete genomic sequence of all three segments of 14 Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus strains isolated from 1958–2000 in Russia, Central Asia and Africa was identified. Each genomic segment was independently subjected to continuous Bayesian phylogeographic analysis. The origin of each genomic segment was traced to Africa about 1,000–5,000 years ago. The virus was first introduced to South and Central Asia in the Middle Ages, and then spread to China, India and Russia. Reverse transfers of genomic segments from Asia to Africa were also observed. The European CCHFV genotype V was introduced to Europe via the Astrakhan region in South Russia 280–400 years ago and subsequently gradually spread westward in Russia, to Turkey and the Balkans less than 150 years ago. Only a few recombination events could be suggested in S and L genomic segments, while segment reassortment was very common. The median height of a non-reassortant phylogenetic tree node was 68–156 years. There were reassortment events within the European CCHFV lineage, but not with viruses from other locations. Therefore, CCHFV in Europe is a recently emerged zoonosis that represents a spillover from the global gene pool.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus