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Visual Enhancement of Illusory Phenomenal Accents in Non-Isochronous Auditory Rhythms

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ABSTRACT

Musical rhythms encompass temporal patterns that often yield regular metrical accents (e.g., a beat). There have been mixed results regarding perception as a function of metrical saliency, namely, whether sensitivity to a deviant was greater in metrically stronger or weaker positions. Besides, effects of metrical position have not been examined in non-isochronous rhythms, or with respect to multisensory influences. This study was concerned with two main issues: (1) In non-isochronous auditory rhythms with clear metrical accents, how would sensitivity to a deviant be modulated by metrical positions? (2) Would the effects be enhanced by multisensory information? Participants listened to strongly metrical rhythms with or without watching a point-light figure dance to the rhythm in the same meter, and detected a slight loudness increment. Both conditions were presented with or without an auditory interference that served to impair auditory metrical perception. Sensitivity to a deviant was found greater in weak beat than in strong beat positions, consistent with the Predictive Coding hypothesis and the idea of metrically induced illusory phenomenal accents. The visual rhythm of dance hindered auditory detection, but more so when the latter was itself less impaired. This pattern suggested that the visual and auditory rhythms were perceptually integrated to reinforce metrical accentuation, yielding more illusory phenomenal accents and thus lower sensitivity to deviants, in a manner consistent with the principle of inverse effectiveness. Results were discussed in the predictive framework for multisensory rhythms involving observed movements and possible mediation of the motor system.

No MeSH data available.


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Results of sorted d’.(A) Group means of individually sorted d’, for each experimental condition as a function of the auditory performance level. 1 to 4 on the X-axis represent unisensory (auditory) performance in a descending order. (B) The relative multisensory gain of IA as a function of the unisensory IA level. 1 to 4 on the X-axis represent unisensory IA in a descending order. Note that the “gain” here refers to the increase in IA, not in detection performance. The black line depicts the best linear fit for the four mean data points (in red).
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pone.0166880.g005: Results of sorted d’.(A) Group means of individually sorted d’, for each experimental condition as a function of the auditory performance level. 1 to 4 on the X-axis represent unisensory (auditory) performance in a descending order. (B) The relative multisensory gain of IA as a function of the unisensory IA level. 1 to 4 on the X-axis represent unisensory IA in a descending order. Note that the “gain” here refers to the increase in IA, not in detection performance. The black line depicts the best linear fit for the four mean data points (in red).

Mentions: The individually sorted d’s were then submitted to a 2 (modality) × 4 (A performance level) × 2 (metrical position) ANOVA. While the main effect of metrical position was the same as for the unsorted d’: F(1, 19) = 50.9, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.73 (Bayes factor 1.5 × 108: 1), there was an interaction between rhythm modality and A performance level, F(3, 57) = 9.86, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.34 (Bayes factor 331: 1 in favor of the interaction). Follow-up one-way ANOVAs conducted for each performance level separately revealed lower d’ in AV than in A for level 1 (best A performance), F(1, 19) = 19.43, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.51, marginally so for level 2, F(1, 19) = 4.10, p = 0.057, ηp2 = 0.18, but not for level 3 or level 4, both ps > 0.1. See Fig 5A.


Visual Enhancement of Illusory Phenomenal Accents in Non-Isochronous Auditory Rhythms
Results of sorted d’.(A) Group means of individually sorted d’, for each experimental condition as a function of the auditory performance level. 1 to 4 on the X-axis represent unisensory (auditory) performance in a descending order. (B) The relative multisensory gain of IA as a function of the unisensory IA level. 1 to 4 on the X-axis represent unisensory IA in a descending order. Note that the “gain” here refers to the increase in IA, not in detection performance. The black line depicts the best linear fit for the four mean data points (in red).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5120798&req=5

pone.0166880.g005: Results of sorted d’.(A) Group means of individually sorted d’, for each experimental condition as a function of the auditory performance level. 1 to 4 on the X-axis represent unisensory (auditory) performance in a descending order. (B) The relative multisensory gain of IA as a function of the unisensory IA level. 1 to 4 on the X-axis represent unisensory IA in a descending order. Note that the “gain” here refers to the increase in IA, not in detection performance. The black line depicts the best linear fit for the four mean data points (in red).
Mentions: The individually sorted d’s were then submitted to a 2 (modality) × 4 (A performance level) × 2 (metrical position) ANOVA. While the main effect of metrical position was the same as for the unsorted d’: F(1, 19) = 50.9, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.73 (Bayes factor 1.5 × 108: 1), there was an interaction between rhythm modality and A performance level, F(3, 57) = 9.86, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.34 (Bayes factor 331: 1 in favor of the interaction). Follow-up one-way ANOVAs conducted for each performance level separately revealed lower d’ in AV than in A for level 1 (best A performance), F(1, 19) = 19.43, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.51, marginally so for level 2, F(1, 19) = 4.10, p = 0.057, ηp2 = 0.18, but not for level 3 or level 4, both ps > 0.1. See Fig 5A.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Musical rhythms encompass temporal patterns that often yield regular metrical accents (e.g., a beat). There have been mixed results regarding perception as a function of metrical saliency, namely, whether sensitivity to a deviant was greater in metrically stronger or weaker positions. Besides, effects of metrical position have not been examined in non-isochronous rhythms, or with respect to multisensory influences. This study was concerned with two main issues: (1) In non-isochronous auditory rhythms with clear metrical accents, how would sensitivity to a deviant be modulated by metrical positions? (2) Would the effects be enhanced by multisensory information? Participants listened to strongly metrical rhythms with or without watching a point-light figure dance to the rhythm in the same meter, and detected a slight loudness increment. Both conditions were presented with or without an auditory interference that served to impair auditory metrical perception. Sensitivity to a deviant was found greater in weak beat than in strong beat positions, consistent with the Predictive Coding hypothesis and the idea of metrically induced illusory phenomenal accents. The visual rhythm of dance hindered auditory detection, but more so when the latter was itself less impaired. This pattern suggested that the visual and auditory rhythms were perceptually integrated to reinforce metrical accentuation, yielding more illusory phenomenal accents and thus lower sensitivity to deviants, in a manner consistent with the principle of inverse effectiveness. Results were discussed in the predictive framework for multisensory rhythms involving observed movements and possible mediation of the motor system.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus