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Colonizing the High Arctic: Mitochondrial DNA Reveals Common Origin of Eurasian Archipelagic Reindeer ( Rangifer tarandus )

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ABSTRACT

In light of current debates on global climate change it has become important to know more on how large, roaming species have responded to environmental change in the past. Using the highly variable mitochondrial control region, we revisit theories of Rangifer colonization and propose that the High Arctic archipelagos of Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, and Novaia Zemlia were colonized by reindeer from the Eurasian mainland after the last glacial maximum. Comparing mtDNA control region sequences from the three Arctic archipelagos showed a strong genetic connection between the populations, supporting a common origin in the past. A genetic connection between the three archipelagos and two Russian mainland populations was also found, suggesting colonization of the Eurasian high Arctic archipelagos from the Eurasian mainland. The age of the Franz Josef Land material (>2000 years before present) implies that Arctic indigenous reindeer colonized the Eurasian Arctic archipelagos through natural dispersal, before humans approached this region.

No MeSH data available.


Frequencies of CR haplotype clusters in the sampled reindeer populations.Frequencies of haplotypes belonging to sub-cluster Ic, Id, Ie and cluster II in all seven populations. Haplotypes that did not cluster with any of the previously described clusters were placed in cluster I. Haplotype frequencies are calculated from the 400 bp long fragment for all populations, except haplotype frequencies in the ancient material from Franz Josef Land, which were calculated from the 190 bp long fragment. Haplotype frequencies show that Ic haplotypes are common on Svalbard, Novaia Zemlia and in the ancient material from Franz Josef Land. Ic haplotypes are also found in the Pechora- and Peza River populations, but are absent in the domestic reindeer population sampled on Kolguev.
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pone.0165237.g002: Frequencies of CR haplotype clusters in the sampled reindeer populations.Frequencies of haplotypes belonging to sub-cluster Ic, Id, Ie and cluster II in all seven populations. Haplotypes that did not cluster with any of the previously described clusters were placed in cluster I. Haplotype frequencies are calculated from the 400 bp long fragment for all populations, except haplotype frequencies in the ancient material from Franz Josef Land, which were calculated from the 190 bp long fragment. Haplotype frequencies show that Ic haplotypes are common on Svalbard, Novaia Zemlia and in the ancient material from Franz Josef Land. Ic haplotypes are also found in the Pechora- and Peza River populations, but are absent in the domestic reindeer population sampled on Kolguev.

Mentions: We identified four previously defined haplotype clusters denoted sub-cluster Ic, Id, Ie and cluster II [26, 67, 68] (Fig 1B), all showing high support in the Bayesian phylogeny (posterior probability ≥ 99, S1 Fig), except sub-cluster Ic showing an intermediate level of support (posterior probability = 71). In the present study, we found sub-cluster Ic to comprise the 3 haplotypes previously found in Svalbard reindeer (n = 27), but also to include haplotypes found on Novaia Zemlia (n = 12), the Pechora River (n = 3), the Peza River (n = 1) and Franz Josef Land (n = 13) (Figs 1B and 2). Haplotypes in sub-cluster Id are commonly found in Russian domestic reindeer, but have also been identified in wild reindeer from Taimyr [26]. In the current study, we identified one haplotype belonging to sub-cluster Id in four wild reindeer from Belyi Island (Figs 1B and 2). Ie haplotypes are also commonly found in Russian domestic reindeer [26]. However, in the present study, Ie haplotypes were found in samples from Kolguev (n = 12), Belyi Island (n = 1), Peza River (n = 2), Pechora River (n = 1), Novaia Zemlia (n = 2) and Franz Josef Land (n = 1) (Figs 1B and 2). Finally, haplotypes in cluster II have previously been known to dominate in Scandinavian domestic reindeer [69]. We found cluster II haplotypes in wild reindeer from Peza River (n = 5), Novaia Zemlia (n = 6) and on Belyi Island (n = 6) (Figs 1B and 2). One of the three cluster II haplotypes found in the current study is identical to a cluster II haplotype commonly found in Scandinavia [26, 69].


Colonizing the High Arctic: Mitochondrial DNA Reveals Common Origin of Eurasian Archipelagic Reindeer ( Rangifer tarandus )
Frequencies of CR haplotype clusters in the sampled reindeer populations.Frequencies of haplotypes belonging to sub-cluster Ic, Id, Ie and cluster II in all seven populations. Haplotypes that did not cluster with any of the previously described clusters were placed in cluster I. Haplotype frequencies are calculated from the 400 bp long fragment for all populations, except haplotype frequencies in the ancient material from Franz Josef Land, which were calculated from the 190 bp long fragment. Haplotype frequencies show that Ic haplotypes are common on Svalbard, Novaia Zemlia and in the ancient material from Franz Josef Land. Ic haplotypes are also found in the Pechora- and Peza River populations, but are absent in the domestic reindeer population sampled on Kolguev.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5120779&req=5

pone.0165237.g002: Frequencies of CR haplotype clusters in the sampled reindeer populations.Frequencies of haplotypes belonging to sub-cluster Ic, Id, Ie and cluster II in all seven populations. Haplotypes that did not cluster with any of the previously described clusters were placed in cluster I. Haplotype frequencies are calculated from the 400 bp long fragment for all populations, except haplotype frequencies in the ancient material from Franz Josef Land, which were calculated from the 190 bp long fragment. Haplotype frequencies show that Ic haplotypes are common on Svalbard, Novaia Zemlia and in the ancient material from Franz Josef Land. Ic haplotypes are also found in the Pechora- and Peza River populations, but are absent in the domestic reindeer population sampled on Kolguev.
Mentions: We identified four previously defined haplotype clusters denoted sub-cluster Ic, Id, Ie and cluster II [26, 67, 68] (Fig 1B), all showing high support in the Bayesian phylogeny (posterior probability ≥ 99, S1 Fig), except sub-cluster Ic showing an intermediate level of support (posterior probability = 71). In the present study, we found sub-cluster Ic to comprise the 3 haplotypes previously found in Svalbard reindeer (n = 27), but also to include haplotypes found on Novaia Zemlia (n = 12), the Pechora River (n = 3), the Peza River (n = 1) and Franz Josef Land (n = 13) (Figs 1B and 2). Haplotypes in sub-cluster Id are commonly found in Russian domestic reindeer, but have also been identified in wild reindeer from Taimyr [26]. In the current study, we identified one haplotype belonging to sub-cluster Id in four wild reindeer from Belyi Island (Figs 1B and 2). Ie haplotypes are also commonly found in Russian domestic reindeer [26]. However, in the present study, Ie haplotypes were found in samples from Kolguev (n = 12), Belyi Island (n = 1), Peza River (n = 2), Pechora River (n = 1), Novaia Zemlia (n = 2) and Franz Josef Land (n = 1) (Figs 1B and 2). Finally, haplotypes in cluster II have previously been known to dominate in Scandinavian domestic reindeer [69]. We found cluster II haplotypes in wild reindeer from Peza River (n = 5), Novaia Zemlia (n = 6) and on Belyi Island (n = 6) (Figs 1B and 2). One of the three cluster II haplotypes found in the current study is identical to a cluster II haplotype commonly found in Scandinavia [26, 69].

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

In light of current debates on global climate change it has become important to know more on how large, roaming species have responded to environmental change in the past. Using the highly variable mitochondrial control region, we revisit theories of Rangifer colonization and propose that the High Arctic archipelagos of Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, and Novaia Zemlia were colonized by reindeer from the Eurasian mainland after the last glacial maximum. Comparing mtDNA control region sequences from the three Arctic archipelagos showed a strong genetic connection between the populations, supporting a common origin in the past. A genetic connection between the three archipelagos and two Russian mainland populations was also found, suggesting colonization of the Eurasian high Arctic archipelagos from the Eurasian mainland. The age of the Franz Josef Land material (>2000 years before present) implies that Arctic indigenous reindeer colonized the Eurasian Arctic archipelagos through natural dispersal, before humans approached this region.

No MeSH data available.