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Evaluation of polyphenylene ether ether sulfone/nanohydroxyapatite nanofiber composite as a biomaterial for hard tissue replacement

View Article: PubMed Central

ABSTRACT

The present work is aimed at investigating the mechanical and in vitro biological properties of polyphenylene ether ether sulfone (PPEES)/nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) composite fibers. Electrospinning was used to prepare nanofiber composite mats of PPEES/nHA with different weight percentages of the inorganic filler, nHA. The fabricated composites were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)-attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (ATR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) techniques. The mechanical properties of the composite were studied with a tensile tester. The FTIR-ATR spectrum depicted the functional group as well as the interaction between the PPEES and nHA composite materials; in addition, the elemental groups were identified with EDX analysis. The morphology of the nanofiber composite was studied by SEM. Tensile strength analysis of the PPEES/nHA composite revealed the elastic nature of the nanofiber composite reinforced with nHA and suggested significant mechanical strength of the composite. The biomineralization studies performed using simulated body fluid with increased incubation time showed enhanced mineralization, which showed that the composites possessed high bioactivity property. Cell viability of the nanofiber composite, studied with osteoblast (MG-63) cells, was observed to be higher in the composites containing higher concentrations of nHA.

Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2194-0517-2-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.


Inverted fluorescence microscopy images after 3-, 7-, and 10-day cultures of PPEES nanofiber (a–c) and PPEES2 nanofiber (d–f) composites.
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Fig6: Inverted fluorescence microscopy images after 3-, 7-, and 10-day cultures of PPEES nanofiber (a–c) and PPEES2 nanofiber (d–f) composites.

Mentions: The inverted fluorescence microscopy observation shows the adherence morphology of osteoblast-like cells over the PPEES/nHA nanofiber composites after different culture periods. During the culture period, seeded cells get adhered and proliferated on the fiber composite with apatite formation than with bare nanofiber composite. This may likely be due to higher cell adhesion on apatite-formed PPEES nanofiber composite. This is in agreement with earlier studies (Kang et al. 2008). PPEES 2 nanofiber composite showed more adherences with enthusiastic migration of cells as inferred with fluorescein dye penetration through the osteoblast cell membrane (Figure 6d–f). The intensity of fluorescence on the nanofiber composite increased with the increase in culture time representing the enhanced proliferation of MG-63 cells. From the figure, it is further inferred that the void space in between the nanofibers in the composite was packed with bone-like cells as evidenced by greater cytocompatibility of the apatite-reinforced nanofiber composite. These findings were in line with those observed by Peter et al. (2010) in their studies on chitosan-gelatin/nanohydroxyapatite composites. In the unreinforced chitosan-gelatin (CG) scaffolds, only few cells (osteoblasts) were observed, and the cell morphology was described as rounded. In the case of CG/nHA composite scaffolds, greater cell attachment and spreading were noted while the cell morphology was described as flattened and sheetlike with filopodial extensions. This change in morphology was observed because nHA apparently improved the formation of focal adhesion and allowed for substantial cell spreading. This is quite likely related to the enhanced protein adsorption on the surface in the presence of nHA.Figure 6


Evaluation of polyphenylene ether ether sulfone/nanohydroxyapatite nanofiber composite as a biomaterial for hard tissue replacement
Inverted fluorescence microscopy images after 3-, 7-, and 10-day cultures of PPEES nanofiber (a–c) and PPEES2 nanofiber (d–f) composites.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5120667&req=5

Fig6: Inverted fluorescence microscopy images after 3-, 7-, and 10-day cultures of PPEES nanofiber (a–c) and PPEES2 nanofiber (d–f) composites.
Mentions: The inverted fluorescence microscopy observation shows the adherence morphology of osteoblast-like cells over the PPEES/nHA nanofiber composites after different culture periods. During the culture period, seeded cells get adhered and proliferated on the fiber composite with apatite formation than with bare nanofiber composite. This may likely be due to higher cell adhesion on apatite-formed PPEES nanofiber composite. This is in agreement with earlier studies (Kang et al. 2008). PPEES 2 nanofiber composite showed more adherences with enthusiastic migration of cells as inferred with fluorescein dye penetration through the osteoblast cell membrane (Figure 6d–f). The intensity of fluorescence on the nanofiber composite increased with the increase in culture time representing the enhanced proliferation of MG-63 cells. From the figure, it is further inferred that the void space in between the nanofibers in the composite was packed with bone-like cells as evidenced by greater cytocompatibility of the apatite-reinforced nanofiber composite. These findings were in line with those observed by Peter et al. (2010) in their studies on chitosan-gelatin/nanohydroxyapatite composites. In the unreinforced chitosan-gelatin (CG) scaffolds, only few cells (osteoblasts) were observed, and the cell morphology was described as rounded. In the case of CG/nHA composite scaffolds, greater cell attachment and spreading were noted while the cell morphology was described as flattened and sheetlike with filopodial extensions. This change in morphology was observed because nHA apparently improved the formation of focal adhesion and allowed for substantial cell spreading. This is quite likely related to the enhanced protein adsorption on the surface in the presence of nHA.Figure 6

View Article: PubMed Central

ABSTRACT

The present work is aimed at investigating the mechanical and in vitro biological properties of polyphenylene ether ether sulfone (PPEES)/nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) composite fibers. Electrospinning was used to prepare nanofiber composite mats of PPEES/nHA with different weight percentages of the inorganic filler, nHA. The fabricated composites were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)-attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (ATR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) techniques. The mechanical properties of the composite were studied with a tensile tester. The FTIR-ATR spectrum depicted the functional group as well as the interaction between the PPEES and nHA composite materials; in addition, the elemental groups were identified with EDX analysis. The morphology of the nanofiber composite was studied by SEM. Tensile strength analysis of the PPEES/nHA composite revealed the elastic nature of the nanofiber composite reinforced with nHA and suggested significant mechanical strength of the composite. The biomineralization studies performed using simulated body fluid with increased incubation time showed enhanced mineralization, which showed that the composites possessed high bioactivity property. Cell viability of the nanofiber composite, studied with osteoblast (MG-63) cells, was observed to be higher in the composites containing higher concentrations of nHA.

Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2194-0517-2-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.