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Implementation of contingency management in probation agencies using a case controlled longitudinal design: a PDSA study protocol

View Article: PubMed Central

ABSTRACT

Background: Moving evidence-based practices (EBPs) from clinical research settings to real world work environments is challenging. Grounded in the work of Proctor and colleagues on “bench-trench” partnerships, quality improvement studies use a bench (academic)-trench (practitioner) model that incorporates “practice knowledge” while building a feedback process throughout the various change phases (Social Work Research, 27, 67-69). Yet, few implementation studies give adequate attention to longitudinal collection of key organizational and individual level-information.

Method/design: The Justice Steps (JSTEPS) project uses a PDSA (Plan-Do-Study-Act) quasi-experimental design that combines active and engaged researcher and practitioner learning collaborations about EBP adoption and implementation. The academic researchers and practitioners (Federal probation and judicial staff) work together to implement contingency management (CM) into routine practice. Each site participates in two learning collaborative meetings, receives six feedback reports, and accesses telephone consultation on the design and implementation of the CM procedure. The study protocol allows examination of the implementation of CM over 24 months in five settings. Each setting proceeds based on the sites’ own pace of adopting CM. This study uses a case controlled pre-post design to measure individual level data and a pre-post design for staff level outcomes. The outcomes of interest are reduced substance use and increased time on probation. The project data collection includes individual-level client data and organizational and staff data to assess the implementation of the CM in five probation agencies through three periods: inception, implementation and sustainability. Qualitative methods include observations and interviews combined with data gathering during learning sessions. Individual level client data includes attendance, status at required events, and arrests.

Discussion: This project contributes to the current understanding of how contextual factors affect implementation decisions. The protocol allows each site to develop their own tailored CM protocol and a process for implementing CM, compatible with the local socio-political environment. Feedback loops are important for fostering attention to CM implementation issues.

Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2194-7899-1-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.


JSTEPS software screenshot.
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Fig2: JSTEPS software screenshot.

Mentions: Figure 2 is an example of a feedback report. The feedback report emphasizes the eight core CM principles and compares site protocols to these principles. It also uses the JSTEPS software (described below) to hypothetically demonstrate how each sites’ point system would work, noting when study subjects (offenders) would receive rewards. Additionally, the report asks sites to consider whether their self-designed CM protocol: 1) emphasizes core positive reinforcement principles; 2) gives offenders early rewards; and 3) requires any changes before they begin protocol implementation. These factors are considered important as part of the science of behavior change. (For a complete description of JSTEPS point and reward systems refer to Rudes and colleagues (Rudes et al. 2011)).Figure 2


Implementation of contingency management in probation agencies using a case controlled longitudinal design: a PDSA study protocol
JSTEPS software screenshot.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5120660&req=5

Fig2: JSTEPS software screenshot.
Mentions: Figure 2 is an example of a feedback report. The feedback report emphasizes the eight core CM principles and compares site protocols to these principles. It also uses the JSTEPS software (described below) to hypothetically demonstrate how each sites’ point system would work, noting when study subjects (offenders) would receive rewards. Additionally, the report asks sites to consider whether their self-designed CM protocol: 1) emphasizes core positive reinforcement principles; 2) gives offenders early rewards; and 3) requires any changes before they begin protocol implementation. These factors are considered important as part of the science of behavior change. (For a complete description of JSTEPS point and reward systems refer to Rudes and colleagues (Rudes et al. 2011)).Figure 2

View Article: PubMed Central

ABSTRACT

Background: Moving evidence-based practices (EBPs) from clinical research settings to real world work environments is challenging. Grounded in the work of Proctor and colleagues on “bench-trench” partnerships, quality improvement studies use a bench (academic)-trench (practitioner) model that incorporates “practice knowledge” while building a feedback process throughout the various change phases (Social Work Research, 27, 67-69). Yet, few implementation studies give adequate attention to longitudinal collection of key organizational and individual level-information.

Method/design: The Justice Steps (JSTEPS) project uses a PDSA (Plan-Do-Study-Act) quasi-experimental design that combines active and engaged researcher and practitioner learning collaborations about EBP adoption and implementation. The academic researchers and practitioners (Federal probation and judicial staff) work together to implement contingency management (CM) into routine practice. Each site participates in two learning collaborative meetings, receives six feedback reports, and accesses telephone consultation on the design and implementation of the CM procedure. The study protocol allows examination of the implementation of CM over 24 months in five settings. Each setting proceeds based on the sites’ own pace of adopting CM. This study uses a case controlled pre-post design to measure individual level data and a pre-post design for staff level outcomes. The outcomes of interest are reduced substance use and increased time on probation. The project data collection includes individual-level client data and organizational and staff data to assess the implementation of the CM in five probation agencies through three periods: inception, implementation and sustainability. Qualitative methods include observations and interviews combined with data gathering during learning sessions. Individual level client data includes attendance, status at required events, and arrests.

Discussion: This project contributes to the current understanding of how contextual factors affect implementation decisions. The protocol allows each site to develop their own tailored CM protocol and a process for implementing CM, compatible with the local socio-political environment. Feedback loops are important for fostering attention to CM implementation issues.

Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2194-7899-1-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.