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Bridging the gap between health and justice

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More than seven million people in the United States are currently under some form of criminal justice supervision, and control (whether in jail, prison, or on probation or parole), and they have somatic and mental health issues in rates that are much higher than those found in the general population... Dretsch argues that about 40% of all federal inmates, local jail inmates, and state inmates have at least one documented chronic illness (also see Wilper et al. )... Further, a study conducted in the United Kingdom found that male prisoners tend to consult doctors about three times more often than a demographically equivalent community population, and consult health care workers 77 times more, compared with men in the larger community; this is also true for incarcerated female offenders, who consult with prison doctors about three times more than females in the community do, and with health-care workers about 59 times more frequently (Marshall et al. )... Many incarcerated individuals are living with Traumatic Brain injury related problems that complicate their management and treatment while in jail or prison... A report by the CDC indicates that the prevalence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) among criminal justice population is significantly higher than that found in the general population... Studies conducted between 1998 and 2006 found that the prevalence of traumatic brain injuries in the jail and prison population ranges between 25% and 87% (Morrell et al. ; Schofield et al. ; Slaughter et al. )... In a more recent study conducted in the U.K., Williams et al. found that adults with TBI were on average younger at entry into custodial systems compared with those who did not suffer such injuries, and the same population reported higher rates of recidivism, as measured by repeated offending... According to Dretsch, it is estimated that anywhere between 15% and 40% of inmates incarcerated in U.S. jails and prisons are infected with the virus, “…despite the fact that the rate of infection among the general population is only 1.6%” (p. 121)... Mortality rate are was also found to be higher among former inmates... Specifically, Binswanger and her colleagues, who examined and compared mortality rates among released inmates from the Washington State Department of Corrections, found that the risk of death among those released from incarceration is 3.5 times higher than that of non-previously incarcerated residents of the same age, gender and race... Mortality rates are also higher among untreated substance abusers that are released from incarceration without any meaningful treatment... For example, Binswanger and her colleagues examining a cohort of inmates released found that during the first two weeks after release the risk of death among former inmates was 12.7 times higher compared with other state residents, “…with a markedly elevated relative risk of death from drug overdose…” (p.157)... This paper has shown how public health concerns should not be ignored inside prisons and jails, or among other criminal justice professionals and first responders, and it has laid out a few specific suggestions for applying the ideals of public health in a criminal justice setting... In the criminal justice system, jails and prisons are the most obvious reservoir: In their confines, many air-, food-, and blood-borne pathogens can cause fatal infectious diseases such as HCV, HIV/AIDS, STD and TB... When pathogens (health issues) in jails and prisons go untreated, the chain of epidemic is unbroken, and these host communities then become a larger reservoir, in which the identified pathogens can often spread just as well as within the walls of prisons.

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The cycle of infection.
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Fig1: The cycle of infection.

Mentions: One of the most basic and important scientific tools of public health is the epidemiology, and the epidemiological model (FigureĀ 1), which is used to identify infectious diseases and control their spread. Applying the vocabulary and concepts of epidemics to the criminal justice sphere, will create a more leveled ground upon which health and justice scholars and practitioners can better collaborate to devise new studies, propose solutions and advance policies.Figure 1


Bridging the gap between health and justice
The cycle of infection.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5120658&req=5

Fig1: The cycle of infection.
Mentions: One of the most basic and important scientific tools of public health is the epidemiology, and the epidemiological model (FigureĀ 1), which is used to identify infectious diseases and control their spread. Applying the vocabulary and concepts of epidemics to the criminal justice sphere, will create a more leveled ground upon which health and justice scholars and practitioners can better collaborate to devise new studies, propose solutions and advance policies.Figure 1

View Article: PubMed Central

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

More than seven million people in the United States are currently under some form of criminal justice supervision, and control (whether in jail, prison, or on probation or parole), and they have somatic and mental health issues in rates that are much higher than those found in the general population... Dretsch argues that about 40% of all federal inmates, local jail inmates, and state inmates have at least one documented chronic illness (also see Wilper et al. )... Further, a study conducted in the United Kingdom found that male prisoners tend to consult doctors about three times more often than a demographically equivalent community population, and consult health care workers 77 times more, compared with men in the larger community; this is also true for incarcerated female offenders, who consult with prison doctors about three times more than females in the community do, and with health-care workers about 59 times more frequently (Marshall et al. )... Many incarcerated individuals are living with Traumatic Brain injury related problems that complicate their management and treatment while in jail or prison... A report by the CDC indicates that the prevalence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) among criminal justice population is significantly higher than that found in the general population... Studies conducted between 1998 and 2006 found that the prevalence of traumatic brain injuries in the jail and prison population ranges between 25% and 87% (Morrell et al. ; Schofield et al. ; Slaughter et al. )... In a more recent study conducted in the U.K., Williams et al. found that adults with TBI were on average younger at entry into custodial systems compared with those who did not suffer such injuries, and the same population reported higher rates of recidivism, as measured by repeated offending... According to Dretsch, it is estimated that anywhere between 15% and 40% of inmates incarcerated in U.S. jails and prisons are infected with the virus, “…despite the fact that the rate of infection among the general population is only 1.6%” (p. 121)... Mortality rate are was also found to be higher among former inmates... Specifically, Binswanger and her colleagues, who examined and compared mortality rates among released inmates from the Washington State Department of Corrections, found that the risk of death among those released from incarceration is 3.5 times higher than that of non-previously incarcerated residents of the same age, gender and race... Mortality rates are also higher among untreated substance abusers that are released from incarceration without any meaningful treatment... For example, Binswanger and her colleagues examining a cohort of inmates released found that during the first two weeks after release the risk of death among former inmates was 12.7 times higher compared with other state residents, “…with a markedly elevated relative risk of death from drug overdose…” (p.157)... This paper has shown how public health concerns should not be ignored inside prisons and jails, or among other criminal justice professionals and first responders, and it has laid out a few specific suggestions for applying the ideals of public health in a criminal justice setting... In the criminal justice system, jails and prisons are the most obvious reservoir: In their confines, many air-, food-, and blood-borne pathogens can cause fatal infectious diseases such as HCV, HIV/AIDS, STD and TB... When pathogens (health issues) in jails and prisons go untreated, the chain of epidemic is unbroken, and these host communities then become a larger reservoir, in which the identified pathogens can often spread just as well as within the walls of prisons.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus