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Determination of Genotoxic Effects of Hookah Smoking by Micronucleus and Chromosome Aberration Methods

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ABSTRACT

Background: Use of a hookah (a type of water pipe) is a traditional way of smoking tobacco, particularly in the Middle East. In Turkey, its popularity has been growing in recent years, especially among young people. It is known that cigarette smoking has genotoxic effects and causes mutations, but no comprehensive study has been done on the genotoxic effects of hookah usage, particularly in Turkey.

Material/methods: We collected peripheral blood/buccal smear samples from 30 subjects who did not smoke cigarettes but who regularly smoke a hookah an average of 2 times per week, and from 30 control subjects who had never smoked cigarettes or a hookah. Chromosome analyses were performed on the samples obtained from peripheral blood of each individual, 25 metaphase plaques were counted for each, and chromosome/chromatid breakage/gap parameters were evaluated. Micronucleus analysis was done on buccal smear samples and micronucleus/binucleus parameters were investigated by counting 2000 cells of each individual.

Results: Chromosome breakage ratios were found to be 0.64±0.86 and 0.46±0.71 in the study and control groups, respectively, while chromatid breakage ratios were 0.53±0.83 and 0.53±0.71; fragment ratios were 0.82±1.24 and 0.21±0.49 (p<0.05); and gap ratios were 0.57±0.83 and 0.18±0.53 (p<0.05), respectively. Micronucleus ratio was 6.03±2.06 and 4.43±2.27 (p<0.05) in the study and control groups, respectively, and binucleus ratios were 8.53±3.23 and 12.15±5.18, respectively (p<0.05).

Conclusions: Results of our study reveal significant statistical differences between the individuals who smoked hookah and those who did not in terms of fragment, gap, micronucleus, and binucleus parameters, suggesting that smoking a hookah may cause genotoxic effects.

No MeSH data available.


Graphical evaluation of micronucleus and binucleus.
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f2-medscimonit-22-4490: Graphical evaluation of micronucleus and binucleus.

Mentions: The number of binuclei per 2000 epithelial cells investigated by the micronucleus test was 12.15±5.18 in the control group and 8.53±3.23 in the study group (Figure 2). The number of binuclei in the study group was significantly lower than in the control group (p=0.002).


Determination of Genotoxic Effects of Hookah Smoking by Micronucleus and Chromosome Aberration Methods
Graphical evaluation of micronucleus and binucleus.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5120646&req=5

f2-medscimonit-22-4490: Graphical evaluation of micronucleus and binucleus.
Mentions: The number of binuclei per 2000 epithelial cells investigated by the micronucleus test was 12.15±5.18 in the control group and 8.53±3.23 in the study group (Figure 2). The number of binuclei in the study group was significantly lower than in the control group (p=0.002).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Use of a hookah (a type of water pipe) is a traditional way of smoking tobacco, particularly in the Middle East. In Turkey, its popularity has been growing in recent years, especially among young people. It is known that cigarette smoking has genotoxic effects and causes mutations, but no comprehensive study has been done on the genotoxic effects of hookah usage, particularly in Turkey.

Material/methods: We collected peripheral blood/buccal smear samples from 30 subjects who did not smoke cigarettes but who regularly smoke a hookah an average of 2 times per week, and from 30 control subjects who had never smoked cigarettes or a hookah. Chromosome analyses were performed on the samples obtained from peripheral blood of each individual, 25 metaphase plaques were counted for each, and chromosome/chromatid breakage/gap parameters were evaluated. Micronucleus analysis was done on buccal smear samples and micronucleus/binucleus parameters were investigated by counting 2000 cells of each individual.

Results: Chromosome breakage ratios were found to be 0.64±0.86 and 0.46±0.71 in the study and control groups, respectively, while chromatid breakage ratios were 0.53±0.83 and 0.53±0.71; fragment ratios were 0.82±1.24 and 0.21±0.49 (p<0.05); and gap ratios were 0.57±0.83 and 0.18±0.53 (p<0.05), respectively. Micronucleus ratio was 6.03±2.06 and 4.43±2.27 (p<0.05) in the study and control groups, respectively, and binucleus ratios were 8.53±3.23 and 12.15±5.18, respectively (p<0.05).

Conclusions: Results of our study reveal significant statistical differences between the individuals who smoked hookah and those who did not in terms of fragment, gap, micronucleus, and binucleus parameters, suggesting that smoking a hookah may cause genotoxic effects.

No MeSH data available.