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Dietary marine-derived long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular disease risk: a mini review

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Regular fish/fish oil consumption is widely recommended for protection against cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Fish and other marine life are rich sources of the cardioprotective long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3; EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3; DHA). The lipid content and fatty acid profile of fish, however, vary greatly among different fish species. In addition to n-3 PUFA, certain fish, such as saury, pollock, and herring, also contain high levels of long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids (LCMUFA), with aliphatic tails longer than 18 C atoms (i.e., C20:1 and C22:1 isomers). Compared with well-studied n-3 PUFA, limited information, however, is available on the health benefits of marine-derived LCMUFA, particularly in regard to CVD. Our objective in this review is to summarize the current knowledge and provide perspective on the potential therapeutic value of dietary LCMUFA-rich marine oil for improving CVD risk factors. We will also review the possible mechanisms of LCMUFA action on target tissues. Finally, we describe the epidemiologic data and small-scaled clinical studies that have been done on marine oils enriched in LCMUFA. Although there are still many unanswered questions about LCMUFA, this appears to be promising new area of research that may lead to new insights into the health benefits of a different component of fish oils besides n-3 PUFA.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Beneficial effects of marine LCMUFA-rich diet. LCMUFA suppressed lipogenesis and inflammation, and promoted fatty acid oxidation PPAR signaling pathway at gene expression level in liver and white adipose tissues. In the vessels, LCMUFA suppressed lipid deposition and macrophage accumulation. LCMUFA also improved plasma lipid and cytokine profiles, as well as n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio. All these mechanisms accounted for the LCMUFA-mediated improvement in lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and atherosclerosis
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Fig1: Beneficial effects of marine LCMUFA-rich diet. LCMUFA suppressed lipogenesis and inflammation, and promoted fatty acid oxidation PPAR signaling pathway at gene expression level in liver and white adipose tissues. In the vessels, LCMUFA suppressed lipid deposition and macrophage accumulation. LCMUFA also improved plasma lipid and cytokine profiles, as well as n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio. All these mechanisms accounted for the LCMUFA-mediated improvement in lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and atherosclerosis

Mentions: Several animal studies have reported that LCMUFA–rich marine oil, improved CVD risk factors. A summary of these findings and the possible mechanism of action of LCMUFA on target tissues is shown in Fig. 1. For example, a high-fat fed C57BL/6J mice treated with saury oil for either short term (6-weeks) or long term (18-weeks) showed major improvements in several features related to metabolic syndrome [28, 34]. A 10% (w/w) of supplementation of saury oil (equivalent to appropriate 3.5% (w/w) LCMUFA) in a high-fat diet ameliorated diet-induced hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia compared to high-fat control diet. Saury oil diet resulted in a significant increase in LMCUFA levels, especially n-11 LCMUFA, in plasma and in organs (liver, adipose tissues and skeleton muscle). Suppression of genes related to adipogenesis and induction of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and insulin signaling with saury oil supplementation were also associated with improvements in glucose and lipid metabolism. Similarly, 6-week treatment of 15% (w/w) of LCMUFA-rich pollock oil (equivalent to appropriate 3.9% (w/w) LCMUFA) in diet-induced obese mice increased organ levels of LCMUFA, and suppressed the rise in proatherogenic LDL-cholesterol without decreasing anti-atherogenic levels of HDL-cholesterol [35]. An attenuation in hepatic steatosis and a down-regulation of hepatic genes involved in cholesterol and lipid synthesis by the pollock oil diet most likely contributed to these findings. In addition, Gabrielsson et al. fed LDLR-deficient mice herring fillet or beef for 16 weeks, and investigated the effect of dietary herring on plasma lipid levels and atherosclerosis [36]. The major differences in fatty acid composition between herring and beef diet were the enrichment of long-chain n-3 PUFA (herring diet: 4.9% EPA and DHA vs. beef diet: Not Detected) and LCMUFA (herring diet: 3.4% C20:1 and C22:1 vs. beef diet: Not Detected) in herring diet. They showed that herring diet compared to the beef diet led to lower plasma triglyceride (TG) and Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol levels and higher plasma High-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels, along with less atherosclerotic lesions. A recent study by Eilertsen et al. used marine mammal oil, and the results showed that atherogenesis was inhibited in apoE-deficient mice fed diet supplemented with 1% of seal oil combined with extra virgin oil (EVO/n-3), compared with diet supplemented with 1% corn oil or without any supplement (control). Besides long-chain omega-3 PUFA, such as EPA and DHA, the EVO/n-3 oil was also enriched in LCMUFA (C20:1 in EVO/n-3 diet was 2-fold higher than that in control or corn oil-rich diet), suggesting that in addition to n-3 PUFA that the LCMUFA in the seal oil may also contribute to the protection against atherosclerosis [37]. In addition to the studies using LCMUFA-rich fish oils or marine mammal oils, some studies also focused on the health impact of zooplankton-derived oils. Calanus finmarchicus is the most abundant herbivorous zooplankton that that are enriched in both n-3 PUFA and LCMUFA [38]. Several studies showed beneficial effect of dietary Calanus oil in CVD risk, such as reducing atherosclerotic plaque formation, abdominal fat accumulation and hepatic steatosis, and improving glucose tolerance in mice through multiple mechanisms, including regulation of inflammatory response-associated gene expression in livers and adipose tissues [39–41]. Nevertheless, because these marine oils also contain considerable amounts of n-3 PUFA and intake of these marine oils increased plasma and organ levels of EPA and DHA, one cannot exclude the possibility that the benefit from this diet was only due to n-3 PUFA consumption. Further animal studies using purified LCMUFA are necessary to better understand the functional relationships between dietary LCMUFA and CVD risk factors.Fig. 1


Dietary marine-derived long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular disease risk: a mini review
Beneficial effects of marine LCMUFA-rich diet. LCMUFA suppressed lipogenesis and inflammation, and promoted fatty acid oxidation PPAR signaling pathway at gene expression level in liver and white adipose tissues. In the vessels, LCMUFA suppressed lipid deposition and macrophage accumulation. LCMUFA also improved plasma lipid and cytokine profiles, as well as n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio. All these mechanisms accounted for the LCMUFA-mediated improvement in lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and atherosclerosis
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5120510&req=5

Fig1: Beneficial effects of marine LCMUFA-rich diet. LCMUFA suppressed lipogenesis and inflammation, and promoted fatty acid oxidation PPAR signaling pathway at gene expression level in liver and white adipose tissues. In the vessels, LCMUFA suppressed lipid deposition and macrophage accumulation. LCMUFA also improved plasma lipid and cytokine profiles, as well as n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio. All these mechanisms accounted for the LCMUFA-mediated improvement in lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and atherosclerosis
Mentions: Several animal studies have reported that LCMUFA–rich marine oil, improved CVD risk factors. A summary of these findings and the possible mechanism of action of LCMUFA on target tissues is shown in Fig. 1. For example, a high-fat fed C57BL/6J mice treated with saury oil for either short term (6-weeks) or long term (18-weeks) showed major improvements in several features related to metabolic syndrome [28, 34]. A 10% (w/w) of supplementation of saury oil (equivalent to appropriate 3.5% (w/w) LCMUFA) in a high-fat diet ameliorated diet-induced hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia compared to high-fat control diet. Saury oil diet resulted in a significant increase in LMCUFA levels, especially n-11 LCMUFA, in plasma and in organs (liver, adipose tissues and skeleton muscle). Suppression of genes related to adipogenesis and induction of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and insulin signaling with saury oil supplementation were also associated with improvements in glucose and lipid metabolism. Similarly, 6-week treatment of 15% (w/w) of LCMUFA-rich pollock oil (equivalent to appropriate 3.9% (w/w) LCMUFA) in diet-induced obese mice increased organ levels of LCMUFA, and suppressed the rise in proatherogenic LDL-cholesterol without decreasing anti-atherogenic levels of HDL-cholesterol [35]. An attenuation in hepatic steatosis and a down-regulation of hepatic genes involved in cholesterol and lipid synthesis by the pollock oil diet most likely contributed to these findings. In addition, Gabrielsson et al. fed LDLR-deficient mice herring fillet or beef for 16 weeks, and investigated the effect of dietary herring on plasma lipid levels and atherosclerosis [36]. The major differences in fatty acid composition between herring and beef diet were the enrichment of long-chain n-3 PUFA (herring diet: 4.9% EPA and DHA vs. beef diet: Not Detected) and LCMUFA (herring diet: 3.4% C20:1 and C22:1 vs. beef diet: Not Detected) in herring diet. They showed that herring diet compared to the beef diet led to lower plasma triglyceride (TG) and Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol levels and higher plasma High-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels, along with less atherosclerotic lesions. A recent study by Eilertsen et al. used marine mammal oil, and the results showed that atherogenesis was inhibited in apoE-deficient mice fed diet supplemented with 1% of seal oil combined with extra virgin oil (EVO/n-3), compared with diet supplemented with 1% corn oil or without any supplement (control). Besides long-chain omega-3 PUFA, such as EPA and DHA, the EVO/n-3 oil was also enriched in LCMUFA (C20:1 in EVO/n-3 diet was 2-fold higher than that in control or corn oil-rich diet), suggesting that in addition to n-3 PUFA that the LCMUFA in the seal oil may also contribute to the protection against atherosclerosis [37]. In addition to the studies using LCMUFA-rich fish oils or marine mammal oils, some studies also focused on the health impact of zooplankton-derived oils. Calanus finmarchicus is the most abundant herbivorous zooplankton that that are enriched in both n-3 PUFA and LCMUFA [38]. Several studies showed beneficial effect of dietary Calanus oil in CVD risk, such as reducing atherosclerotic plaque formation, abdominal fat accumulation and hepatic steatosis, and improving glucose tolerance in mice through multiple mechanisms, including regulation of inflammatory response-associated gene expression in livers and adipose tissues [39–41]. Nevertheless, because these marine oils also contain considerable amounts of n-3 PUFA and intake of these marine oils increased plasma and organ levels of EPA and DHA, one cannot exclude the possibility that the benefit from this diet was only due to n-3 PUFA consumption. Further animal studies using purified LCMUFA are necessary to better understand the functional relationships between dietary LCMUFA and CVD risk factors.Fig. 1

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Regular fish/fish oil consumption is widely recommended for protection against cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Fish and other marine life are rich sources of the cardioprotective long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3; EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3; DHA). The lipid content and fatty acid profile of fish, however, vary greatly among different fish species. In addition to n-3 PUFA, certain fish, such as saury, pollock, and herring, also contain high levels of long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids (LCMUFA), with aliphatic tails longer than 18 C atoms (i.e., C20:1 and C22:1 isomers). Compared with well-studied n-3 PUFA, limited information, however, is available on the health benefits of marine-derived LCMUFA, particularly in regard to CVD. Our objective in this review is to summarize the current knowledge and provide perspective on the potential therapeutic value of dietary LCMUFA-rich marine oil for improving CVD risk factors. We will also review the possible mechanisms of LCMUFA action on target tissues. Finally, we describe the epidemiologic data and small-scaled clinical studies that have been done on marine oils enriched in LCMUFA. Although there are still many unanswered questions about LCMUFA, this appears to be promising new area of research that may lead to new insights into the health benefits of a different component of fish oils besides n-3 PUFA.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus