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In vitro activity of ten essential oils against Sarcoptes scabiei

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ABSTRACT

Background: The development of alternative approaches in ectoparasite management is currently required. Essential oils have been demonstrated to exhibit fumigant and topical toxicity to a number of arthropods. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential efficacy of ten essential oils against Sarcoptes scabiei.

Methods: The major chemical components of the oils were identified by GC-MS analysis. Contact and fumigation bioassays were performed on Sarcoptes mites collected from experimentally infected pigs. For contact bioassays, essential oils were diluted with paraffin to get concentrations at 10, 5, and even 1% for the most efficient ones. The mites were inspected under a stereomicroscope 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180min after contact. For fumigation bioassay, a filter paper was treated with 100 μL of the pure essential oil. The mites were inspected under a stereomicroscope for the first 5min, and then every 5min until 1h.

Results: Using contact bioassays, 1% clove and palmarosa oil killed all the mites within 20 and 50min, respectively. The oils efficacy order was: clove > palmarosa > geranium > tea tree > lavender > manuka > bitter orange > eucalyptus > Japanese cedar. In fumigation bioassays, the efficacy order was: tea tree > clove > eucalyptus > lavender > palmarosa > geranium > Japanese cedar > bitter orange > manuka. In both bioassays, cade oil showed no activity.

Conclusion: Essential oils, especially tea tree, clove, palmarosa, and eucalyptus oils, are potential complementary or alternative products to treat S. scabiei infections in humans or animals, as well as to control the mites in the environment.

Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13071-016-1889-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.


Survival curves of Sarcoptes scabiei mites exposed to essential oils. a Fumigation test with 10 essential oils. b Contact test with 10% of 9 essential oils. c Contact test with 5% of 9 essential oils. d Contact test with 1% of 3 essential oils. 95% confidence intervals are represented as shaded areas
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Fig1: Survival curves of Sarcoptes scabiei mites exposed to essential oils. a Fumigation test with 10 essential oils. b Contact test with 10% of 9 essential oils. c Contact test with 5% of 9 essential oils. d Contact test with 1% of 3 essential oils. 95% confidence intervals are represented as shaded areas

Mentions: The major components of the oils analyzed by GC/MS are presented in Table 2. The survival curves of mites exposed to essential oils by direct contact or by fumigation are shown in Fig. 1. The median lethal times are presented in Table 3. In all tests, significant statistical differences were found between each essential oil and the control (P < 0.0001) except for the contact test of Japanese cedar oil at 5% concentration (χ2 = 3.0741, P = 0.0795) (Table 3). Cade oil failed to show any significant effect in both bioassays. Among all the oils tested with the contact bioassay, clove oil demonstrated the best scabicidal effect as its 1% solution killed all mites within 20 min. Based on their median lethal times in contact bioassays (Table 3), the efficacy of these oils can be put in this order: clove > palmarosa > geranium > tea tree > lavender > manuka > bitter orange > eucalyptus > Japanese cedar. No mite died when exposed to pure cade oil for one hour.Table 2


In vitro activity of ten essential oils against Sarcoptes scabiei
Survival curves of Sarcoptes scabiei mites exposed to essential oils. a Fumigation test with 10 essential oils. b Contact test with 10% of 9 essential oils. c Contact test with 5% of 9 essential oils. d Contact test with 1% of 3 essential oils. 95% confidence intervals are represented as shaded areas
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5120413&req=5

Fig1: Survival curves of Sarcoptes scabiei mites exposed to essential oils. a Fumigation test with 10 essential oils. b Contact test with 10% of 9 essential oils. c Contact test with 5% of 9 essential oils. d Contact test with 1% of 3 essential oils. 95% confidence intervals are represented as shaded areas
Mentions: The major components of the oils analyzed by GC/MS are presented in Table 2. The survival curves of mites exposed to essential oils by direct contact or by fumigation are shown in Fig. 1. The median lethal times are presented in Table 3. In all tests, significant statistical differences were found between each essential oil and the control (P < 0.0001) except for the contact test of Japanese cedar oil at 5% concentration (χ2 = 3.0741, P = 0.0795) (Table 3). Cade oil failed to show any significant effect in both bioassays. Among all the oils tested with the contact bioassay, clove oil demonstrated the best scabicidal effect as its 1% solution killed all mites within 20 min. Based on their median lethal times in contact bioassays (Table 3), the efficacy of these oils can be put in this order: clove > palmarosa > geranium > tea tree > lavender > manuka > bitter orange > eucalyptus > Japanese cedar. No mite died when exposed to pure cade oil for one hour.Table 2

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: The development of alternative approaches in ectoparasite management is currently required. Essential oils have been demonstrated to exhibit fumigant and topical toxicity to a number of arthropods. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential efficacy of ten essential oils against Sarcoptes scabiei.

Methods: The major chemical components of the oils were identified by GC-MS analysis. Contact and fumigation bioassays were performed on Sarcoptes mites collected from experimentally infected pigs. For contact bioassays, essential oils were diluted with paraffin to get concentrations at 10, 5, and even 1% for the most efficient ones. The mites were inspected under a stereomicroscope 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180min after contact. For fumigation bioassay, a filter paper was treated with 100&nbsp;&mu;L of the pure essential oil. The mites were inspected under a stereomicroscope for the first 5min, and then every 5min until 1h.

Results: Using contact bioassays, 1% clove and palmarosa oil killed all the mites within 20 and 50min, respectively. The oils efficacy order was: clove&thinsp;&gt;&thinsp;palmarosa&thinsp;&gt;&thinsp;geranium&thinsp;&gt;&thinsp;tea tree&thinsp;&gt;&thinsp;lavender&thinsp;&gt;&thinsp;manuka&thinsp;&gt;&thinsp;bitter orange&thinsp;&gt;&thinsp;eucalyptus&thinsp;&gt;&thinsp;Japanese cedar. In fumigation bioassays, the efficacy order was: tea tree&thinsp;&gt;&thinsp;clove&thinsp;&gt;&thinsp;eucalyptus&thinsp;&gt;&thinsp;lavender&thinsp;&gt;&thinsp;palmarosa&thinsp;&gt;&thinsp;geranium&thinsp;&gt;&thinsp;Japanese cedar&thinsp;&gt;&thinsp;bitter orange&thinsp;&gt;&thinsp;manuka. In both bioassays, cade oil showed no activity.

Conclusion: Essential oils, especially tea tree, clove, palmarosa, and eucalyptus oils, are potential complementary or alternative products to treat S. scabiei infections in humans or animals, as well as to control the mites in the environment.

Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13071-016-1889-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.