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The changing biodiversity of Alabama Drosophila : important impacts of seasonal variation, urbanization, and invasive species

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ABSTRACT

Global warming and anthropogenic disturbances significantly influence the biosphere, tremendously increasing species extinction rates. In Central Alabama, we analyzed Drosophilidae species composition change nearly 100 years after the previous survey. We found ten Drosophilid species that were not reported during the last major biodiversity studies, two of which are invasive pests. In addition, we analyzed the influence of seasonal environmental variables characteristic of the subtropical climate zone on Drosophila abundance and biodiversity. We found a significant correlation between temperature and abundance of total Drosophila as well as for six of the seven most represented species individually, with a maximum abundance at intermediate temperatures (18–26°C). In addition, temperature was positively correlated with biodiversity of Drosophila. Precipitation produced a significant effect on the abundance of five species of Drosophila, with different optima for each species, but did not affect overall biodiversity. We concluded that in the subtropical climate zone of Central Alabama, seasonal temperature and precipitation changes produce a significant effect on Drosophila abundance and biodiversity, while local land use also impacts fly abundance, contributing to an apparent shift in species composition over the last century. We expect global climate change and other anthropogenic factors to further impact Drosophila species composition in the subtropical climate zone into the future.

No MeSH data available.


Number of individual flies per species collected from June 2014 to May 2015 and used for statistical analysis
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ece32452-fig-0003: Number of individual flies per species collected from June 2014 to May 2015 and used for statistical analysis

Mentions: During our collections, we found 21 Drosophilidae species. We collected and identified 14 species of named Drosophila genus: D. affinis, D. putrida, D. tripunctata, D. melanogaster, D. simulans, D. suzukii, D. busckii, D. cardini, D. euronotus, D. falleni, D. immigrans, D. macrospina, D. nigromelanica, D. robusta, and four closely related Drosophilidae species: Hirtodrosophila duncani, Mycodrosophila dimidata, Zaprionus indianus, and Scaptomyza frustfrustulifera (Fig. 2). Other Drosophilidae species that were identified but not included in statistical analyses were Scaptodrosophila latifasciaeformis, Chymomyza amoena, and Leucophenga angusta (Fig. 2), because these species fell out of the monophyletic Drosophila Genus Complex. D. affinis, D. putrida, D. tripunctata, D. melanogaster, D. simulans, D. suzukii, and D. robusta were responsible for 96.3% of the total abundance among our samples. Drosophila affinis was the most abundant species, contributing to over 42% of total Drosophila abundance (Fig. 3).


The changing biodiversity of Alabama Drosophila : important impacts of seasonal variation, urbanization, and invasive species
Number of individual flies per species collected from June 2014 to May 2015 and used for statistical analysis
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5120374&req=5

ece32452-fig-0003: Number of individual flies per species collected from June 2014 to May 2015 and used for statistical analysis
Mentions: During our collections, we found 21 Drosophilidae species. We collected and identified 14 species of named Drosophila genus: D. affinis, D. putrida, D. tripunctata, D. melanogaster, D. simulans, D. suzukii, D. busckii, D. cardini, D. euronotus, D. falleni, D. immigrans, D. macrospina, D. nigromelanica, D. robusta, and four closely related Drosophilidae species: Hirtodrosophila duncani, Mycodrosophila dimidata, Zaprionus indianus, and Scaptomyza frustfrustulifera (Fig. 2). Other Drosophilidae species that were identified but not included in statistical analyses were Scaptodrosophila latifasciaeformis, Chymomyza amoena, and Leucophenga angusta (Fig. 2), because these species fell out of the monophyletic Drosophila Genus Complex. D. affinis, D. putrida, D. tripunctata, D. melanogaster, D. simulans, D. suzukii, and D. robusta were responsible for 96.3% of the total abundance among our samples. Drosophila affinis was the most abundant species, contributing to over 42% of total Drosophila abundance (Fig. 3).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Global warming and anthropogenic disturbances significantly influence the biosphere, tremendously increasing species extinction rates. In Central Alabama, we analyzed Drosophilidae species composition change nearly 100 years after the previous survey. We found ten Drosophilid species that were not reported during the last major biodiversity studies, two of which are invasive pests. In addition, we analyzed the influence of seasonal environmental variables characteristic of the subtropical climate zone on Drosophila abundance and biodiversity. We found a significant correlation between temperature and abundance of total Drosophila as well as for six of the seven most represented species individually, with a maximum abundance at intermediate temperatures (18–26°C). In addition, temperature was positively correlated with biodiversity of Drosophila. Precipitation produced a significant effect on the abundance of five species of Drosophila, with different optima for each species, but did not affect overall biodiversity. We concluded that in the subtropical climate zone of Central Alabama, seasonal temperature and precipitation changes produce a significant effect on Drosophila abundance and biodiversity, while local land use also impacts fly abundance, contributing to an apparent shift in species composition over the last century. We expect global climate change and other anthropogenic factors to further impact Drosophila species composition in the subtropical climate zone into the future.

No MeSH data available.