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The changing biodiversity of Alabama Drosophila : important impacts of seasonal variation, urbanization, and invasive species

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Global warming and anthropogenic disturbances significantly influence the biosphere, tremendously increasing species extinction rates. In Central Alabama, we analyzed Drosophilidae species composition change nearly 100 years after the previous survey. We found ten Drosophilid species that were not reported during the last major biodiversity studies, two of which are invasive pests. In addition, we analyzed the influence of seasonal environmental variables characteristic of the subtropical climate zone on Drosophila abundance and biodiversity. We found a significant correlation between temperature and abundance of total Drosophila as well as for six of the seven most represented species individually, with a maximum abundance at intermediate temperatures (18–26°C). In addition, temperature was positively correlated with biodiversity of Drosophila. Precipitation produced a significant effect on the abundance of five species of Drosophila, with different optima for each species, but did not affect overall biodiversity. We concluded that in the subtropical climate zone of Central Alabama, seasonal temperature and precipitation changes produce a significant effect on Drosophila abundance and biodiversity, while local land use also impacts fly abundance, contributing to an apparent shift in species composition over the last century. We expect global climate change and other anthropogenic factors to further impact Drosophila species composition in the subtropical climate zone into the future.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Collection sites around Tuscaloosa. Nonurban parks are marked in blue, urban parks are marked in red, sites of industrial production and industrial product storage are marked in black, and sites that do not match any of the described categories are marked in purple
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ece32452-fig-0001: Collection sites around Tuscaloosa. Nonurban parks are marked in blue, urban parks are marked in red, sites of industrial production and industrial product storage are marked in black, and sites that do not match any of the described categories are marked in purple

Mentions: We collected samples from 23 sites in and around Tuscaloosa, AL (Fig. 1 and Table S1). Collection sites were chosen based on land‐use type. We sampled seven sites that are used for industrial production or storage of industrial products, eight urban parks, three nonurban parks (a biological station, an arboretum, and a state park), and five sites that did not fall into any category (a highway rest station, an apartment complex, an archeological park, a roadside, and a farm, Table S1). Latitude and longitude of each collection site were recorded with a Garmin GPS navigator (Table S1). Samples were collected from banana and mushroom traps left overnight and collected in a time range from 7:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. the following morning (18–24 hr collection period total) using an alcohol aspirator (Markow & O'Grady, 2005). Samples were stored in 70% ethanol at −20°C. We made 16 collection trips from July 2014 to May 2015. Collection trips were performed once per month except for the time period from August 2014 to November 2014, during which collections were performed twice per month. For the period from June 2014 to December 2014, we sampled from five to seven randomly selected sites from our 23 collection sites, then starting in January 2015, we chose six collection sites to focus on and visited them monthly.


The changing biodiversity of Alabama Drosophila : important impacts of seasonal variation, urbanization, and invasive species
Collection sites around Tuscaloosa. Nonurban parks are marked in blue, urban parks are marked in red, sites of industrial production and industrial product storage are marked in black, and sites that do not match any of the described categories are marked in purple
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5120374&req=5

ece32452-fig-0001: Collection sites around Tuscaloosa. Nonurban parks are marked in blue, urban parks are marked in red, sites of industrial production and industrial product storage are marked in black, and sites that do not match any of the described categories are marked in purple
Mentions: We collected samples from 23 sites in and around Tuscaloosa, AL (Fig. 1 and Table S1). Collection sites were chosen based on land‐use type. We sampled seven sites that are used for industrial production or storage of industrial products, eight urban parks, three nonurban parks (a biological station, an arboretum, and a state park), and five sites that did not fall into any category (a highway rest station, an apartment complex, an archeological park, a roadside, and a farm, Table S1). Latitude and longitude of each collection site were recorded with a Garmin GPS navigator (Table S1). Samples were collected from banana and mushroom traps left overnight and collected in a time range from 7:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. the following morning (18–24 hr collection period total) using an alcohol aspirator (Markow & O'Grady, 2005). Samples were stored in 70% ethanol at −20°C. We made 16 collection trips from July 2014 to May 2015. Collection trips were performed once per month except for the time period from August 2014 to November 2014, during which collections were performed twice per month. For the period from June 2014 to December 2014, we sampled from five to seven randomly selected sites from our 23 collection sites, then starting in January 2015, we chose six collection sites to focus on and visited them monthly.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Global warming and anthropogenic disturbances significantly influence the biosphere, tremendously increasing species extinction rates. In Central Alabama, we analyzed Drosophilidae species composition change nearly 100 years after the previous survey. We found ten Drosophilid species that were not reported during the last major biodiversity studies, two of which are invasive pests. In addition, we analyzed the influence of seasonal environmental variables characteristic of the subtropical climate zone on Drosophila abundance and biodiversity. We found a significant correlation between temperature and abundance of total Drosophila as well as for six of the seven most represented species individually, with a maximum abundance at intermediate temperatures (18–26°C). In addition, temperature was positively correlated with biodiversity of Drosophila. Precipitation produced a significant effect on the abundance of five species of Drosophila, with different optima for each species, but did not affect overall biodiversity. We concluded that in the subtropical climate zone of Central Alabama, seasonal temperature and precipitation changes produce a significant effect on Drosophila abundance and biodiversity, while local land use also impacts fly abundance, contributing to an apparent shift in species composition over the last century. We expect global climate change and other anthropogenic factors to further impact Drosophila species composition in the subtropical climate zone into the future.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus