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Allostasis in health and food addiction

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Homeostasis is the basis of modern medicine and allostasis, a further elaboration of homeostasis, has been defined as stability through change, which was later modified to predictive reference resetting. It has been suggested that pleasure is related to salience (behavioral relevance), and withdrawal has been linked to allostasis in addictive types. The question arises how the clinical and neural signatures of pleasure, salience, allostasis and withdrawal relate, both in a non-addicted and addicted state. Resting state EEGs were performed in 66 people, involving a food-addicted obese group, a non-food addicted obese group and a lean control group. Correlation analyses were performed on behavioral data, and correlation, comparative and conjunction analyses were performed to extract electrophysiological relationships between pleasure, salience, allostasis and withdrawal. Pleasure/liking seems to be the phenomenological expression that enough salient stimuli are obtained, and withdrawal can be seen as a motivational incentive because due to allostatic reference resetting, more stimuli are required. In addition, in contrast to non-addiction, a pathological, non-adaptive salience attached to food results in withdrawal mediated through persistent allostatic reference resetting.

No MeSH data available.


A correlation analysis between the lagged phase coherence and allostasis showed a significant effect (r = 0.38, p < 0.05) for delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta1, beta2, beta3 and gamma frequency band for the addicted group.
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f8: A correlation analysis between the lagged phase coherence and allostasis showed a significant effect (r = 0.38, p < 0.05) for delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta1, beta2, beta3 and gamma frequency band for the addicted group.

Mentions: A correlation analysis between the lagged phase coherence and allostasis showed a significant effect (r = 0.38, p < 0.05) for the delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta1, beta2, beta3 and gamma frequency bands. For the delta, theta, beta2, beta3 and gamma frequency bands an increased connection was identified between the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and the posterior cingulate cortex. This suggests that the higher the addicted participants score on allostasis, the stronger the connectivity is between the three areas. For the alpha1 and alpha2 frequency bands, a decreased connectivity was identified between pregenual anterior cingulate cortex and the posterior cingulate cortex as well as between the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and the posterior cingulate cortex. This indicates that the lower the addicted participants score on allostasis, the stronger the connectivity is. For the beta1 frequency band a significant effect was identified between the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and the posterior cingulate cortex as well as between pregenual anterior cingulate cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. This latter finding suggests that the higher addicted participants score on allostasis, the stronger the associated connectivity is. See Fig. 8 for an overview.


Allostasis in health and food addiction
A correlation analysis between the lagged phase coherence and allostasis showed a significant effect (r = 0.38, p < 0.05) for delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta1, beta2, beta3 and gamma frequency band for the addicted group.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5120365&req=5

f8: A correlation analysis between the lagged phase coherence and allostasis showed a significant effect (r = 0.38, p < 0.05) for delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta1, beta2, beta3 and gamma frequency band for the addicted group.
Mentions: A correlation analysis between the lagged phase coherence and allostasis showed a significant effect (r = 0.38, p < 0.05) for the delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta1, beta2, beta3 and gamma frequency bands. For the delta, theta, beta2, beta3 and gamma frequency bands an increased connection was identified between the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and the posterior cingulate cortex. This suggests that the higher the addicted participants score on allostasis, the stronger the connectivity is between the three areas. For the alpha1 and alpha2 frequency bands, a decreased connectivity was identified between pregenual anterior cingulate cortex and the posterior cingulate cortex as well as between the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and the posterior cingulate cortex. This indicates that the lower the addicted participants score on allostasis, the stronger the connectivity is. For the beta1 frequency band a significant effect was identified between the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and the posterior cingulate cortex as well as between pregenual anterior cingulate cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. This latter finding suggests that the higher addicted participants score on allostasis, the stronger the associated connectivity is. See Fig. 8 for an overview.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Homeostasis is the basis of modern medicine and allostasis, a further elaboration of homeostasis, has been defined as stability through change, which was later modified to predictive reference resetting. It has been suggested that pleasure is related to salience (behavioral relevance), and withdrawal has been linked to allostasis in addictive types. The question arises how the clinical and neural signatures of pleasure, salience, allostasis and withdrawal relate, both in a non-addicted and addicted state. Resting state EEGs were performed in 66 people, involving a food-addicted obese group, a non-food addicted obese group and a lean control group. Correlation analyses were performed on behavioral data, and correlation, comparative and conjunction analyses were performed to extract electrophysiological relationships between pleasure, salience, allostasis and withdrawal. Pleasure/liking seems to be the phenomenological expression that enough salient stimuli are obtained, and withdrawal can be seen as a motivational incentive because due to allostatic reference resetting, more stimuli are required. In addition, in contrast to non-addiction, a pathological, non-adaptive salience attached to food results in withdrawal mediated through persistent allostatic reference resetting.

No MeSH data available.