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Multi-Functional Carbon Fibre Composites using Carbon Nanotubes as an Alternative to Polymer Sizing

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ABSTRACT

Carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRP) were introduced to the aerospace, automobile and civil engineering industries for their high strength and low weight. A key feature of CFRP is the polymer sizing - a coating applied to the surface of the carbon fibres to assist handling, improve the interfacial adhesion between fibre and polymer matrix and allow this matrix to wet-out the carbon fibres. In this paper, we introduce an alternative material to the polymer sizing, namely carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the carbon fibres, which in addition imparts electrical and thermal functionality. High quality CNTs are grown at a high density as a result of a 35 nm aluminium interlayer which has previously been shown to minimise diffusion of the catalyst in the carbon fibre substrate. A CNT modified-CFRP show 300%, 450% and 230% improvements in the electrical conductivity on the ‘surface’, ‘through-thickness’ and ‘volume’ directions, respectively. Furthermore, through-thickness thermal conductivity calculations reveal a 107% increase. These improvements suggest the potential of a direct replacement for lightning strike solutions and to enhance the efficiency of current de-icing solutions employed in the aerospace industry.

No MeSH data available.


Raman spectra analysis for two laser excitation wavelengths, (a) 514 nm and (c) 782 nm and their characteristic peaks (b,d), respectively. (a,c) Raman spectra during the fabrication of the fuzzy fibres; the bare carbon fibre fabric (black curves), the metallic deposition of the aluminium interlayer and iron catalyst on the fabric (yellow curves) and the fuzzy fibre fabric ((a) green and (c) red curves). (b,d) Subsequent analysis of characteristic peaks; radial breathing mode (RBM), D, G and 2D peak for both laser excitation wavelengths. For fitted spectra, the black curves are the original spectra, green and red curves are the individual Lorentzian fits and the blue curve is the sum peak (where two curves are fitted). (d) The morphology of the CNTs assisted with selecting the regions to perform the spectra analysis. (e) Comparisons of the defect ‘D’ and the graphitisation peak ‘G’ ratio compared to other studies of CNTs on carbon fibre. Please note references (25-30, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 5) to comparable Raman analysis on CNT is indicated in (e).
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f2: Raman spectra analysis for two laser excitation wavelengths, (a) 514 nm and (c) 782 nm and their characteristic peaks (b,d), respectively. (a,c) Raman spectra during the fabrication of the fuzzy fibres; the bare carbon fibre fabric (black curves), the metallic deposition of the aluminium interlayer and iron catalyst on the fabric (yellow curves) and the fuzzy fibre fabric ((a) green and (c) red curves). (b,d) Subsequent analysis of characteristic peaks; radial breathing mode (RBM), D, G and 2D peak for both laser excitation wavelengths. For fitted spectra, the black curves are the original spectra, green and red curves are the individual Lorentzian fits and the blue curve is the sum peak (where two curves are fitted). (d) The morphology of the CNTs assisted with selecting the regions to perform the spectra analysis. (e) Comparisons of the defect ‘D’ and the graphitisation peak ‘G’ ratio compared to other studies of CNTs on carbon fibre. Please note references (25-30, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 5) to comparable Raman analysis on CNT is indicated in (e).

Mentions: The nature of the graphitic structures considered in our investigation was assessed using Raman spectroscopy (Fig. 2) with two laser excitation lines, 514 nm (Fig. 2a,b) and 782 nm (Fig. 2c,d) (see Supplementary Note 4 for method). This technique is non-destructive, and highly suited for symmetric homo-atomic lattice structures such as CNTs and carbon fibres. Fig. 2(a,c) displays the spectra for unmodified carbon fibres (black curves), carbon fibres after metal catalyst deposition (yellow curves) and for the fuzzy fibres after CNT growth, for 514 nm and 782 nm laser excitation lines (green curve and red curves, respectively).


Multi-Functional Carbon Fibre Composites using Carbon Nanotubes as an Alternative to Polymer Sizing
Raman spectra analysis for two laser excitation wavelengths, (a) 514 nm and (c) 782 nm and their characteristic peaks (b,d), respectively. (a,c) Raman spectra during the fabrication of the fuzzy fibres; the bare carbon fibre fabric (black curves), the metallic deposition of the aluminium interlayer and iron catalyst on the fabric (yellow curves) and the fuzzy fibre fabric ((a) green and (c) red curves). (b,d) Subsequent analysis of characteristic peaks; radial breathing mode (RBM), D, G and 2D peak for both laser excitation wavelengths. For fitted spectra, the black curves are the original spectra, green and red curves are the individual Lorentzian fits and the blue curve is the sum peak (where two curves are fitted). (d) The morphology of the CNTs assisted with selecting the regions to perform the spectra analysis. (e) Comparisons of the defect ‘D’ and the graphitisation peak ‘G’ ratio compared to other studies of CNTs on carbon fibre. Please note references (25-30, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 5) to comparable Raman analysis on CNT is indicated in (e).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5120359&req=5

f2: Raman spectra analysis for two laser excitation wavelengths, (a) 514 nm and (c) 782 nm and their characteristic peaks (b,d), respectively. (a,c) Raman spectra during the fabrication of the fuzzy fibres; the bare carbon fibre fabric (black curves), the metallic deposition of the aluminium interlayer and iron catalyst on the fabric (yellow curves) and the fuzzy fibre fabric ((a) green and (c) red curves). (b,d) Subsequent analysis of characteristic peaks; radial breathing mode (RBM), D, G and 2D peak for both laser excitation wavelengths. For fitted spectra, the black curves are the original spectra, green and red curves are the individual Lorentzian fits and the blue curve is the sum peak (where two curves are fitted). (d) The morphology of the CNTs assisted with selecting the regions to perform the spectra analysis. (e) Comparisons of the defect ‘D’ and the graphitisation peak ‘G’ ratio compared to other studies of CNTs on carbon fibre. Please note references (25-30, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 5) to comparable Raman analysis on CNT is indicated in (e).
Mentions: The nature of the graphitic structures considered in our investigation was assessed using Raman spectroscopy (Fig. 2) with two laser excitation lines, 514 nm (Fig. 2a,b) and 782 nm (Fig. 2c,d) (see Supplementary Note 4 for method). This technique is non-destructive, and highly suited for symmetric homo-atomic lattice structures such as CNTs and carbon fibres. Fig. 2(a,c) displays the spectra for unmodified carbon fibres (black curves), carbon fibres after metal catalyst deposition (yellow curves) and for the fuzzy fibres after CNT growth, for 514 nm and 782 nm laser excitation lines (green curve and red curves, respectively).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRP) were introduced to the aerospace, automobile and civil engineering industries for their high strength and low weight. A key feature of CFRP is the polymer sizing - a coating applied to the surface of the carbon fibres to assist handling, improve the interfacial adhesion between fibre and polymer matrix and allow this matrix to wet-out the carbon fibres. In this paper, we introduce an alternative material to the polymer sizing, namely carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the carbon fibres, which in addition imparts electrical and thermal functionality. High quality CNTs are grown at a high density as a result of a 35 nm aluminium interlayer which has previously been shown to minimise diffusion of the catalyst in the carbon fibre substrate. A CNT modified-CFRP show 300%, 450% and 230% improvements in the electrical conductivity on the ‘surface’, ‘through-thickness’ and ‘volume’ directions, respectively. Furthermore, through-thickness thermal conductivity calculations reveal a 107% increase. These improvements suggest the potential of a direct replacement for lightning strike solutions and to enhance the efficiency of current de-icing solutions employed in the aerospace industry.

No MeSH data available.