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14,000-year-old seeds indicate the Levantine origin of the lost progenitor of faba bean

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ABSTRACT

The understanding of crop domestication is dependent on tracking the original geographical distribution of wild relatives. The faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is economically important in many countries around the world; nevertheless, its origin has been debated because its ancestor could not be securely identified. Recent investigations in the site of el-Wad (Mount Carmel, Israel), provide the first and, so far, only remains of the lost ancestor of faba bean. X-ray CT scan analysis of the faba beans provides the first set of measurements of the biometry of this species before its domestication. The presence of wild specimens in Mount Carmel, 14,000 years ago, supports that the wild variety grew nearby in the Lower Galilee where the first domestication was documented for Neolithic farmers 10,200 years ago.

No MeSH data available.


The context of study.(a) Map of the Near East; (b) Location of the Natufian site of el-Wad and the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B sites of Ahihud, Yiftahel, and Nahal Zippori where the earliest domesticated faba beans were found910. In grey the limit of the Lower Galilee. The images were created with QGIS Development Team, <2015>. QGIS Geographic Information System. Open Source Geospatial Foundation Project. http://www.qgis.org/.
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f1: The context of study.(a) Map of the Near East; (b) Location of the Natufian site of el-Wad and the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B sites of Ahihud, Yiftahel, and Nahal Zippori where the earliest domesticated faba beans were found910. In grey the limit of the Lower Galilee. The images were created with QGIS Development Team, <2015>. QGIS Geographic Information System. Open Source Geospatial Foundation Project. http://www.qgis.org/.

Mentions: Mount Carmel is a unique and highly diversified area, which encompasses the mountainous area of the Carmel, the coastal plain and the seashore (Fig. 1). Since 1996, it is a UNESCO biosphere, which hosts 976 of all the 1500 plant species of Israel16. The vegetation of the reserve includes over a hundred varieties of wild legumes and 10% of the varieties of wild Vicia ssp. documented in the world17. As such, Mount Carmel is one of the largest wild legume gene pools in western Asia. Mount Carmel is also known for providing prolific evidence regarding the Late Epi-paleolithic Natufian Culture (15,000–11,700 cal BP). The Natufian, renowned for the regular appearance of durable architecture, hewn bedrock features, cemeteries and art in the Levantine record, marks the pre-agricultural transition from nomadic to sedentary life-ways18. El-Wad (western Mount Carmel) displays a long Natufian cultural sequence upon which the definition of this culture was largely based19.


14,000-year-old seeds indicate the Levantine origin of the lost progenitor of faba bean
The context of study.(a) Map of the Near East; (b) Location of the Natufian site of el-Wad and the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B sites of Ahihud, Yiftahel, and Nahal Zippori where the earliest domesticated faba beans were found910. In grey the limit of the Lower Galilee. The images were created with QGIS Development Team, <2015>. QGIS Geographic Information System. Open Source Geospatial Foundation Project. http://www.qgis.org/.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5120295&req=5

f1: The context of study.(a) Map of the Near East; (b) Location of the Natufian site of el-Wad and the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B sites of Ahihud, Yiftahel, and Nahal Zippori where the earliest domesticated faba beans were found910. In grey the limit of the Lower Galilee. The images were created with QGIS Development Team, <2015>. QGIS Geographic Information System. Open Source Geospatial Foundation Project. http://www.qgis.org/.
Mentions: Mount Carmel is a unique and highly diversified area, which encompasses the mountainous area of the Carmel, the coastal plain and the seashore (Fig. 1). Since 1996, it is a UNESCO biosphere, which hosts 976 of all the 1500 plant species of Israel16. The vegetation of the reserve includes over a hundred varieties of wild legumes and 10% of the varieties of wild Vicia ssp. documented in the world17. As such, Mount Carmel is one of the largest wild legume gene pools in western Asia. Mount Carmel is also known for providing prolific evidence regarding the Late Epi-paleolithic Natufian Culture (15,000–11,700 cal BP). The Natufian, renowned for the regular appearance of durable architecture, hewn bedrock features, cemeteries and art in the Levantine record, marks the pre-agricultural transition from nomadic to sedentary life-ways18. El-Wad (western Mount Carmel) displays a long Natufian cultural sequence upon which the definition of this culture was largely based19.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The understanding of crop domestication is dependent on tracking the original geographical distribution of wild relatives. The faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is economically important in many countries around the world; nevertheless, its origin has been debated because its ancestor could not be securely identified. Recent investigations in the site of el-Wad (Mount Carmel, Israel), provide the first and, so far, only remains of the lost ancestor of faba bean. X-ray CT scan analysis of the faba beans provides the first set of measurements of the biometry of this species before its domestication. The presence of wild specimens in Mount Carmel, 14,000 years ago, supports that the wild variety grew nearby in the Lower Galilee where the first domestication was documented for Neolithic farmers 10,200 years ago.

No MeSH data available.