Limits...
The Reproductive Toxicity of CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots on the in vivo Ovarian Function and in vitro Fertilization

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Despite the usefulness of quantum dots (QDs) in biomedicine and optoelectronics, their toxicity risks remain a major obstacle for clinical usages. Hence, we studied the reproductive toxicity of CdSe/ZnS QDs on two aspects, (i) in vivo ovarian functions and (ii) in vitro fertilization process. The body weight, estrous cycles, biodistribution of QDs, and oocyte maturation are evaluated on female mice treated with QDs. The mRNA level of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHr) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHr) in ovaries are assayed. Then, the matured cumulus-oocyte-complexes are harvested to co-culture with in vitro capacitated sperms, and the in vitro fertilization is performed. The result revealed that QDs are found in the ovaries, but no changes are detected on the behavior and estrous cycle on the female mice. The mRNA downregulations of FSHr and LHr are observed and the number of matured oocytes has shown a significant decrease when the QDs dosage was above 1.0 pmol/day. Additionally, we found the presence of QDs has reduced the in vitro fertilization success rate. This study highly suggests that the exposure of CdSe/ZnS QDs to female mice can cause adverse effects to the ovary functions and such QDs may have limited applications in clinical usage.

No MeSH data available.


Effects of QDs on mouse body weight and organ index.The data was presented as the mean ± SD. (a) The body weigth of mice in various groups. n = 6. (b) The general organ index after treatment with QDs for 14 days. n = 4. (c) The ovary organ index after treatment with QDs for 14 days. n = 4.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5120285&req=5

f2: Effects of QDs on mouse body weight and organ index.The data was presented as the mean ± SD. (a) The body weigth of mice in various groups. n = 6. (b) The general organ index after treatment with QDs for 14 days. n = 4. (c) The ovary organ index after treatment with QDs for 14 days. n = 4.

Mentions: The body weights of all the mice were recorded every day before and after QDs treatment. No changes in eating, drinking, fur color, and exploratory behavior has been observed for the mice treated with QDs. The body weight plot showed that the weights of the mice increased normally and no difference was observed between control and QDs-treated groups (p > 0.05; Fig. 2a). This suggested that the QDs (≤5.0 pmol/day/mouse consecutively for 14 days) did not cause any adverse effect to the body weight of the mice. After 14 days of administrations, the mice were sacrificed and the major organs and ovaries were harvested. The organ indexes (organ weight/body weight) of heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and brain were calculated and compared (Fig. 2b). The result showed that the QDs had no obvious effect on the organ indexes, which was consistent with our Immunotoxicity assessment study of CdSe/ZnS on BABL/c mice20. Since we wanted to study the reproductive toxicity of QDs for female mice, the organ index of ovary was recorded as well but no obvious difference was detected between the control and treated groups (Fig. 2c).


The Reproductive Toxicity of CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots on the in vivo Ovarian Function and in vitro Fertilization
Effects of QDs on mouse body weight and organ index.The data was presented as the mean ± SD. (a) The body weigth of mice in various groups. n = 6. (b) The general organ index after treatment with QDs for 14 days. n = 4. (c) The ovary organ index after treatment with QDs for 14 days. n = 4.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5120285&req=5

f2: Effects of QDs on mouse body weight and organ index.The data was presented as the mean ± SD. (a) The body weigth of mice in various groups. n = 6. (b) The general organ index after treatment with QDs for 14 days. n = 4. (c) The ovary organ index after treatment with QDs for 14 days. n = 4.
Mentions: The body weights of all the mice were recorded every day before and after QDs treatment. No changes in eating, drinking, fur color, and exploratory behavior has been observed for the mice treated with QDs. The body weight plot showed that the weights of the mice increased normally and no difference was observed between control and QDs-treated groups (p > 0.05; Fig. 2a). This suggested that the QDs (≤5.0 pmol/day/mouse consecutively for 14 days) did not cause any adverse effect to the body weight of the mice. After 14 days of administrations, the mice were sacrificed and the major organs and ovaries were harvested. The organ indexes (organ weight/body weight) of heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and brain were calculated and compared (Fig. 2b). The result showed that the QDs had no obvious effect on the organ indexes, which was consistent with our Immunotoxicity assessment study of CdSe/ZnS on BABL/c mice20. Since we wanted to study the reproductive toxicity of QDs for female mice, the organ index of ovary was recorded as well but no obvious difference was detected between the control and treated groups (Fig. 2c).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Despite the usefulness of quantum dots (QDs) in biomedicine and optoelectronics, their toxicity risks remain a major obstacle for clinical usages. Hence, we studied the reproductive toxicity of CdSe/ZnS QDs on two aspects, (i) in vivo ovarian functions and (ii) in vitro fertilization process. The body weight, estrous cycles, biodistribution of QDs, and oocyte maturation are evaluated on female mice treated with QDs. The mRNA level of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHr) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHr) in ovaries are assayed. Then, the matured cumulus-oocyte-complexes are harvested to co-culture with in vitro capacitated sperms, and the in vitro fertilization is performed. The result revealed that QDs are found in the ovaries, but no changes are detected on the behavior and estrous cycle on the female mice. The mRNA downregulations of FSHr and LHr are observed and the number of matured oocytes has shown a significant decrease when the QDs dosage was above 1.0 pmol/day. Additionally, we found the presence of QDs has reduced the in vitro fertilization success rate. This study highly suggests that the exposure of CdSe/ZnS QDs to female mice can cause adverse effects to the ovary functions and such QDs may have limited applications in clinical usage.

No MeSH data available.