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Driving Pest Insect Populations: Agricultural Chemicals Lead to an Adaptive Syndrome in Nilaparvata Lugens St å l (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The brown planthopper (BPH) is a devastating pest of rice throughout Asia. In this paper we document the BPH biogeographic range expansion in China over the 20-year period, 1992 to 2012. We posed the hypothesis that the range expansion is due to a syndrome of adaptations to the continuous presence of agricultural chemicals (insecticides and a fungicide) over the last 40 years. With respect to biogeography, BPH ranges have expanded by 13% from 1992 to 1997 and by another 3% from 1997 to 2012. In our view, such expansions may follow primarily from the enhancing effects of JGM, among other agricultural chemicals, and from global warming. JGM treatments led to increased thermotolerance, recorded as decreased mortality under heat stress at 40 ± 1 °C (down from 80% to 55%) and increased fecundity (by 49%) at 34 °C. At the molecular level, JGM treatments led to increased abundances of mRNA encoding Acetyl Co-A carboxylase (Acc) (up 25%) and Hsp70 (up 32%) in experimental BPH. RNAi silencing of Hsp70 and Acc eliminated the JGM effects on fecundity and silencing Hsp70 reduced JGM-induced thermotolerance. Integrated with global climate change scenarios, such syndromes in pest insect species have potential for regional- and global-scale agricultural disasters.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

BPH biogeography in China mainland, years 1991, 1997, and 2012.Dots represent BPH range in 1997, grids represent BPH range in 2012. Historical BPH data were obtained from the Pest Forecasting Division of the National Agro-Tech Extension and Service Centre of China (NATESC), Ministry of Agriculture, China. The map is from the website http://www.diva-gis.org/Data. The image analysis was conducted in R using the Portable Network Graphics (png) and raster packages (R Code Team, 2015, http://www.R-project.org/). The software used to create the map is The Arclinfo GIS software (ESRI Inc., Redlands, California, USA) and Adobe Photoshop (Adobe System Software Ireland Ltd., Dublin, Ireland). QGIS Version 2.14 is downloaded from the website: http://www.qgis.org/en/site/forusers/download.html.
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f1: BPH biogeography in China mainland, years 1991, 1997, and 2012.Dots represent BPH range in 1997, grids represent BPH range in 2012. Historical BPH data were obtained from the Pest Forecasting Division of the National Agro-Tech Extension and Service Centre of China (NATESC), Ministry of Agriculture, China. The map is from the website http://www.diva-gis.org/Data. The image analysis was conducted in R using the Portable Network Graphics (png) and raster packages (R Code Team, 2015, http://www.R-project.org/). The software used to create the map is The Arclinfo GIS software (ESRI Inc., Redlands, California, USA) and Adobe Photoshop (Adobe System Software Ireland Ltd., Dublin, Ireland). QGIS Version 2.14 is downloaded from the website: http://www.qgis.org/en/site/forusers/download.html.

Mentions: BPH distribution ranges expanded by 13% over the period 1991 to 1997 and by another 3% from 1997 to 2012 (Fig. 1). The rate of BPH expansion decreased in the second period, as the insects approached the western and northern ranges of Chinese rice planting area.


Driving Pest Insect Populations: Agricultural Chemicals Lead to an Adaptive Syndrome in Nilaparvata Lugens St å l (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)
BPH biogeography in China mainland, years 1991, 1997, and 2012.Dots represent BPH range in 1997, grids represent BPH range in 2012. Historical BPH data were obtained from the Pest Forecasting Division of the National Agro-Tech Extension and Service Centre of China (NATESC), Ministry of Agriculture, China. The map is from the website http://www.diva-gis.org/Data. The image analysis was conducted in R using the Portable Network Graphics (png) and raster packages (R Code Team, 2015, http://www.R-project.org/). The software used to create the map is The Arclinfo GIS software (ESRI Inc., Redlands, California, USA) and Adobe Photoshop (Adobe System Software Ireland Ltd., Dublin, Ireland). QGIS Version 2.14 is downloaded from the website: http://www.qgis.org/en/site/forusers/download.html.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5120279&req=5

f1: BPH biogeography in China mainland, years 1991, 1997, and 2012.Dots represent BPH range in 1997, grids represent BPH range in 2012. Historical BPH data were obtained from the Pest Forecasting Division of the National Agro-Tech Extension and Service Centre of China (NATESC), Ministry of Agriculture, China. The map is from the website http://www.diva-gis.org/Data. The image analysis was conducted in R using the Portable Network Graphics (png) and raster packages (R Code Team, 2015, http://www.R-project.org/). The software used to create the map is The Arclinfo GIS software (ESRI Inc., Redlands, California, USA) and Adobe Photoshop (Adobe System Software Ireland Ltd., Dublin, Ireland). QGIS Version 2.14 is downloaded from the website: http://www.qgis.org/en/site/forusers/download.html.
Mentions: BPH distribution ranges expanded by 13% over the period 1991 to 1997 and by another 3% from 1997 to 2012 (Fig. 1). The rate of BPH expansion decreased in the second period, as the insects approached the western and northern ranges of Chinese rice planting area.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The brown planthopper (BPH) is a devastating pest of rice throughout Asia. In this paper we document the BPH biogeographic range expansion in China over the 20-year period, 1992 to 2012. We posed the hypothesis that the range expansion is due to a syndrome of adaptations to the continuous presence of agricultural chemicals (insecticides and a fungicide) over the last 40 years. With respect to biogeography, BPH ranges have expanded by 13% from 1992 to 1997 and by another 3% from 1997 to 2012. In our view, such expansions may follow primarily from the enhancing effects of JGM, among other agricultural chemicals, and from global warming. JGM treatments led to increased thermotolerance, recorded as decreased mortality under heat stress at 40 ± 1 °C (down from 80% to 55%) and increased fecundity (by 49%) at 34 °C. At the molecular level, JGM treatments led to increased abundances of mRNA encoding Acetyl Co-A carboxylase (Acc) (up 25%) and Hsp70 (up 32%) in experimental BPH. RNAi silencing of Hsp70 and Acc eliminated the JGM effects on fecundity and silencing Hsp70 reduced JGM-induced thermotolerance. Integrated with global climate change scenarios, such syndromes in pest insect species have potential for regional- and global-scale agricultural disasters.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus