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One-volt-driven superfast polymer actuators based on single-ion conductors

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The key challenges in the advancement of actuator technologies related to artificial muscles include fast-response time, low operation voltages and durability. Although several researchers have tackled these challenges over the last few decades, no breakthrough has been made. Here we describe a platform for the development of soft actuators that moves a few millimetres under 1 V in air, with a superfast response time of tens of milliseconds. An essential component of this actuator is the single-ion-conducting polymers that contain well-defined ionic domains through the introduction of zwitterions; this achieved an exceptionally high dielectric constant of 76 and a 300-fold enhancement in ionic conductivity. Moreover, the actuator demonstrated long-term durability, with negligible changes in the actuator stroke over 20,000 cycles in air. Owing to its low-power consumption (only 4 mW), we believe that this actuator could pave the way for cutting-edge biomimetic technologies in the future.

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Low-voltage-driven superfast actuators.(a) Peak-to-peak displacement (δp) and bending strain (ɛp) of the actuator containing ZImS at voltages of ±1, ±2 and ±3 V and frequencies of 0.5 and 10 Hz. (b) The δ and ɛ values of the actuator containing ZImS at alternating square-wave voltages of ±1 V, in comparison with the actuator containing Im/TFSI. (c) Laser-displacement measurements and (d) the force generation of the actuator with ZImS, compared with that containing Im/TFSI, by applying 1 V. (e) Cycle life of the actuator under continuous operation in air at ±1 V and 10 Hz.
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f3: Low-voltage-driven superfast actuators.(a) Peak-to-peak displacement (δp) and bending strain (ɛp) of the actuator containing ZImS at voltages of ±1, ±2 and ±3 V and frequencies of 0.5 and 10 Hz. (b) The δ and ɛ values of the actuator containing ZImS at alternating square-wave voltages of ±1 V, in comparison with the actuator containing Im/TFSI. (c) Laser-displacement measurements and (d) the force generation of the actuator with ZImS, compared with that containing Im/TFSI, by applying 1 V. (e) Cycle life of the actuator under continuous operation in air at ±1 V and 10 Hz.

Mentions: Figure 3a shows the peak-to-peak displacement (δp) and bending strain (ɛp) of the actuator, which were measured with alternating square-wave voltages at ±1, ±2 and ±3 V and at frequencies of 0.5 and 10 Hz. For the actuator containing ZImS, the degree of electromechanical deformation was roughly proportional to the applied voltage. Most importantly, a large δ of 2.0 mm was readily achieved at a frequency of 10 Hz (a cycle time of 50 ms) at ±1 V, which markedly exceeded the best performance of other ionic polymer actuators reported thus far. The small difference in the bending strains with frequencies of 0.5 and 10 Hz under the low-voltage conditions is particularly noteworthy.


One-volt-driven superfast polymer actuators based on single-ion conductors
Low-voltage-driven superfast actuators.(a) Peak-to-peak displacement (δp) and bending strain (ɛp) of the actuator containing ZImS at voltages of ±1, ±2 and ±3 V and frequencies of 0.5 and 10 Hz. (b) The δ and ɛ values of the actuator containing ZImS at alternating square-wave voltages of ±1 V, in comparison with the actuator containing Im/TFSI. (c) Laser-displacement measurements and (d) the force generation of the actuator with ZImS, compared with that containing Im/TFSI, by applying 1 V. (e) Cycle life of the actuator under continuous operation in air at ±1 V and 10 Hz.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5120218&req=5

f3: Low-voltage-driven superfast actuators.(a) Peak-to-peak displacement (δp) and bending strain (ɛp) of the actuator containing ZImS at voltages of ±1, ±2 and ±3 V and frequencies of 0.5 and 10 Hz. (b) The δ and ɛ values of the actuator containing ZImS at alternating square-wave voltages of ±1 V, in comparison with the actuator containing Im/TFSI. (c) Laser-displacement measurements and (d) the force generation of the actuator with ZImS, compared with that containing Im/TFSI, by applying 1 V. (e) Cycle life of the actuator under continuous operation in air at ±1 V and 10 Hz.
Mentions: Figure 3a shows the peak-to-peak displacement (δp) and bending strain (ɛp) of the actuator, which were measured with alternating square-wave voltages at ±1, ±2 and ±3 V and at frequencies of 0.5 and 10 Hz. For the actuator containing ZImS, the degree of electromechanical deformation was roughly proportional to the applied voltage. Most importantly, a large δ of 2.0 mm was readily achieved at a frequency of 10 Hz (a cycle time of 50 ms) at ±1 V, which markedly exceeded the best performance of other ionic polymer actuators reported thus far. The small difference in the bending strains with frequencies of 0.5 and 10 Hz under the low-voltage conditions is particularly noteworthy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The key challenges in the advancement of actuator technologies related to artificial muscles include fast-response time, low operation voltages and durability. Although several researchers have tackled these challenges over the last few decades, no breakthrough has been made. Here we describe a platform for the development of soft actuators that moves a few millimetres under 1 V in air, with a superfast response time of tens of milliseconds. An essential component of this actuator is the single-ion-conducting polymers that contain well-defined ionic domains through the introduction of zwitterions; this achieved an exceptionally high dielectric constant of 76 and a 300-fold enhancement in ionic conductivity. Moreover, the actuator demonstrated long-term durability, with negligible changes in the actuator stroke over 20,000 cycles in air. Owing to its low-power consumption (only 4 mW), we believe that this actuator could pave the way for cutting-edge biomimetic technologies in the future.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus