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Production, Characterization, and Application of Bacillus licheniformis W16 Biosurfactant in Enhancing Oil Recovery

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The biosurfactant production by Bacillus licheniformis W16 and evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using core-flood under reservoir conditions were investigated. Previously reported nine different production media were screened for biosurfactant production, and two were further optimized with different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, cane molasses, or date molasses), as well as the strain was screened for biosurfactant production during the growth in different media. The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension and interfacial tension to 24.33 ± 0.57 mN m−1 and 2.47 ± 0.32 mN m−1 respectively within 72 h, at 40°C, and also altered the wettability of a hydrophobic surface by changing the contact angle from 55.67 ± 1.6 to 19.54°± 0.96°. The critical micelle dilution values of 4X were observed. The biosurfactants were characterized by different analytical techniques and identified as lipopeptide, similar to lichenysin-A. The biosurfactant was stable over wide range of extreme environmental conditions. The core flood experiments showed that the biosurfactant was able to enhance the oil recovery by 24–26% over residual oil saturation (Sor). The results highlight the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactant in wettability alteration and microbial EOR processes.

No MeSH data available.


The contact angle of abiotic control medium – without biosurfactant (55.67 ± 1.6°), and W16 biosurfactant (19.54 ± 0.96°), on a hydrophobic surface (A) and the CMD determination for W16 biosurfactant (B).
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Figure 2: The contact angle of abiotic control medium – without biosurfactant (55.67 ± 1.6°), and W16 biosurfactant (19.54 ± 0.96°), on a hydrophobic surface (A) and the CMD determination for W16 biosurfactant (B).

Mentions: Any alteration at the reservoir ‘oil-water-rock’ interface, leads to change in the surface-wettability properties (oil-wet to water-wet and vice versa), which has also been proposed as one of the mechanism responsible for EOR (Kowalewski et al., 2006; Al-Sulaimani et al., 2012; Al-Wahaibi et al., 2014). The B. licheniformis W16 biosurfactant produced from glucose containing M8 medium, was studied for any effect on changes in the contact angle on a hydrophobic surface (provided with the instrument – DSA 100, KRÜSS, Germany). The contact angle was reduced from 55.67 ± 1.6° of un-inoculated abiotic control media to 19.54 ± 0.96° in cell-free biosurfactant broth (Figure 2A). Karimi et al. (2012) studied the effect of microbial solutions (using an Enterobacter cloacae strain) on 7–21 days aged glass surfaces, and have reported that it alters the wettability of hydrophobic glass surfaces toward more water-wet conditions. Al-Sulaimani et al. (2012) reported that biosurfactant produced by B. subtilis W19 changed the contact angle of distilled water from 70.6 ± 0.3° to 25.32 ± 0.06° at 0.25% (w/v) biosurfactant. Al-Wahaibi et al. (2014) also reported changes in wettability of hydrophobic surface from 58.7 ± 0.85° to 28.4 ± 1.03° and 27.2 ± 0.72° by biosurfactant produced by B. subtilis B30 in glucose or molasses based minimal media. In the current study, we observed that biosurfactant changed the wettability of hydrophobic surface toward more water-wet, which is beneficial during EOR applications. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of wettability alteration using biosurfactant produced by B. licheniformis strain. Along with reduction in ST and IFT, wettability alteration by W16 biosurfactant could also play an important role in improving oil recovery at field scale applications. It is reported that the dilution at which the ST/IFT begins to increase is termed the CMD, which is actually the factor by which the effective biosurfactant concentration exceeds the critical micelle concentration (Ghurye et al., 1994; Al-Wahaibi et al., 2014). The ST and IFT values increased sharply after 4X dilution, where the ST and IFT values observed were 38.28 ± 1.36 mN m−1 and 9.61 ± 0.65 mN m−1 respectively (Figure 2B). Therefore, the observed CMD values for W16 biosurfactant was 4X. Makkar and Cameotra (1997) have reported the biosurfactant production by two B. subtilis strains which reduced the ST in the range of 30–40 dynes cm−1 with 10 X–100 X CMD values after 96 h. Joshi and Desai (2013) reported CMD values of 75X–100X for biosurfactants mixtures produced by different Bacilli strains in carbohydrate based minimal media. Al-Wahaibi et al. (2014) reported CMD values of 8X for biosurfactant produced by B. subtilis B30. The CMD values observed for W16 biosurfactant was comparatively lower than biosurfactants produced by other Bacilli strains.


Production, Characterization, and Application of Bacillus licheniformis W16 Biosurfactant in Enhancing Oil Recovery
The contact angle of abiotic control medium – without biosurfactant (55.67 ± 1.6°), and W16 biosurfactant (19.54 ± 0.96°), on a hydrophobic surface (A) and the CMD determination for W16 biosurfactant (B).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Figure 2: The contact angle of abiotic control medium – without biosurfactant (55.67 ± 1.6°), and W16 biosurfactant (19.54 ± 0.96°), on a hydrophobic surface (A) and the CMD determination for W16 biosurfactant (B).
Mentions: Any alteration at the reservoir ‘oil-water-rock’ interface, leads to change in the surface-wettability properties (oil-wet to water-wet and vice versa), which has also been proposed as one of the mechanism responsible for EOR (Kowalewski et al., 2006; Al-Sulaimani et al., 2012; Al-Wahaibi et al., 2014). The B. licheniformis W16 biosurfactant produced from glucose containing M8 medium, was studied for any effect on changes in the contact angle on a hydrophobic surface (provided with the instrument – DSA 100, KRÜSS, Germany). The contact angle was reduced from 55.67 ± 1.6° of un-inoculated abiotic control media to 19.54 ± 0.96° in cell-free biosurfactant broth (Figure 2A). Karimi et al. (2012) studied the effect of microbial solutions (using an Enterobacter cloacae strain) on 7–21 days aged glass surfaces, and have reported that it alters the wettability of hydrophobic glass surfaces toward more water-wet conditions. Al-Sulaimani et al. (2012) reported that biosurfactant produced by B. subtilis W19 changed the contact angle of distilled water from 70.6 ± 0.3° to 25.32 ± 0.06° at 0.25% (w/v) biosurfactant. Al-Wahaibi et al. (2014) also reported changes in wettability of hydrophobic surface from 58.7 ± 0.85° to 28.4 ± 1.03° and 27.2 ± 0.72° by biosurfactant produced by B. subtilis B30 in glucose or molasses based minimal media. In the current study, we observed that biosurfactant changed the wettability of hydrophobic surface toward more water-wet, which is beneficial during EOR applications. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of wettability alteration using biosurfactant produced by B. licheniformis strain. Along with reduction in ST and IFT, wettability alteration by W16 biosurfactant could also play an important role in improving oil recovery at field scale applications. It is reported that the dilution at which the ST/IFT begins to increase is termed the CMD, which is actually the factor by which the effective biosurfactant concentration exceeds the critical micelle concentration (Ghurye et al., 1994; Al-Wahaibi et al., 2014). The ST and IFT values increased sharply after 4X dilution, where the ST and IFT values observed were 38.28 ± 1.36 mN m−1 and 9.61 ± 0.65 mN m−1 respectively (Figure 2B). Therefore, the observed CMD values for W16 biosurfactant was 4X. Makkar and Cameotra (1997) have reported the biosurfactant production by two B. subtilis strains which reduced the ST in the range of 30–40 dynes cm−1 with 10 X–100 X CMD values after 96 h. Joshi and Desai (2013) reported CMD values of 75X–100X for biosurfactants mixtures produced by different Bacilli strains in carbohydrate based minimal media. Al-Wahaibi et al. (2014) reported CMD values of 8X for biosurfactant produced by B. subtilis B30. The CMD values observed for W16 biosurfactant was comparatively lower than biosurfactants produced by other Bacilli strains.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The biosurfactant production by Bacillus licheniformis W16 and evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using core-flood under reservoir conditions were investigated. Previously reported nine different production media were screened for biosurfactant production, and two were further optimized with different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, cane molasses, or date molasses), as well as the strain was screened for biosurfactant production during the growth in different media. The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension and interfacial tension to 24.33 ± 0.57 mN m−1 and 2.47 ± 0.32 mN m−1 respectively within 72 h, at 40°C, and also altered the wettability of a hydrophobic surface by changing the contact angle from 55.67 ± 1.6 to 19.54°± 0.96°. The critical micelle dilution values of 4X were observed. The biosurfactants were characterized by different analytical techniques and identified as lipopeptide, similar to lichenysin-A. The biosurfactant was stable over wide range of extreme environmental conditions. The core flood experiments showed that the biosurfactant was able to enhance the oil recovery by 24–26% over residual oil saturation (Sor). The results highlight the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactant in wettability alteration and microbial EOR processes.

No MeSH data available.