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Heavy Metals in Water Percolating Through Soil Fertilized with Biodegradable Waste Materials

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ABSTRACT

The influence of manure and composts on the leaching of heavy metals from soil was evaluated in a model lysimeter experiment under controlled conditions. Soil samples were collected from experimental fields, from 0- to 90-cm layers retaining the layout of the soil profile layers, after the second crop rotation cycle with the following plant species: potatoes, spring barley, winter rapeseed, and winter wheat. During the field experiment, 20 t DM/ha of manure, municipal sewage sludge composted with straw (SSCS), composted sewage sludge (SSC), dried granular sewage sludge (DGSS), “Dano” compost made from non-segregated municipal waste (CMMW), and compost made from municipal green waste (CUGW) was applied, i.e., 10 t DM/ha per crop rotation cycle. The concentrations (μg/dm3) of heavy metals in the leachate were as follows: Cd (3.6–11.5) < Mn (4.8–15.4) < Cu (13.4–35.5) < Zn (27.5–48.0) < Cr (36.7–96.5) < Ni (24.4–165.8) < Pb (113.8–187.7). Soil fertilization with organic waste materials did not contaminate the percolating water with manganese or zinc, whereas the concentrations of the other metals increased to the levels characteristic of unsatisfactory water quality and poor water quality classes. The copper and nickel content of percolating water depended on the concentration of those metals introduced into the soil with organic waste materials. The concentrations of Cd in the leachate increased, whereas the concentrations of Cu and Ni decreased with increasing organic C content of organic fertilizers. The widening of the C/N ratio contributed to Mn leaching. The concentrations of Pb, Cr, and Mn in the percolating water were positively correlated with the organic C content of soil.

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Concentrations of heavy metals in the leachate (means ± standard error)
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Fig1: Concentrations of heavy metals in the leachate (means ± standard error)

Mentions: The concentrations of heavy metals in the leachate were as follows: Cd < Mn < Cu < Zn < Cr < Ni < Pb (Fig. 1). In comparison with control soil, both mineral and organic fertilizers generally enhanced the leaching of these elements. The highest Cd concentration was noted in the leachate from soil fertilized with composted sewage sludge (11.45 μg/dm3). Cd concentration was significantly higher in the leachate from soil fertilized with NPK, manure, sewage sludge, and composts containing sewage sludge than in water percolating through control soil and soil fertilized with municipal compost. The leachate from control soil contained the lowest amounts of copper, nickel, chromium, and zinc (10.75, 21.25, 8.70, and 23.70 μg/dm3, respectively). The significantly highest concentrations of Cu and Ni were noted in the leachate from soil fertilized with manure and composts containing plant residues (sewage sludge composted with straw and compost made from municipal green waste). The greatest Cr leaching was observed in soil fertilized with compost made from non-segregated municipal waste and composted sewage sludge (96.45 and 72.12 μg/dm3, respectively). The greatest zinc leaching was noted in soil fertilized with manure and dried granular sewage sludge (48.03 and 45.40 μg/dm3, respectively). Water percolating through control soil and soil fertilized with manure had the lowest lead content (115.60 and 113.82 μg/dm3, respectively). The highest lead content was found in the leachate from soil fertilized with compost made from municipal green waste. Soil fertilization with dried granular sewage sludge increased manganese leaching over 2.5-fold (15.40 μg/dm3), compared with the control treatment. Manure-fertilized soil was characterized by the significantly lowest Mn leaching (4.77 μg/dm3).Fig. 1


Heavy Metals in Water Percolating Through Soil Fertilized with Biodegradable Waste Materials
Concentrations of heavy metals in the leachate (means ± standard error)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5120054&req=5

Fig1: Concentrations of heavy metals in the leachate (means ± standard error)
Mentions: The concentrations of heavy metals in the leachate were as follows: Cd < Mn < Cu < Zn < Cr < Ni < Pb (Fig. 1). In comparison with control soil, both mineral and organic fertilizers generally enhanced the leaching of these elements. The highest Cd concentration was noted in the leachate from soil fertilized with composted sewage sludge (11.45 μg/dm3). Cd concentration was significantly higher in the leachate from soil fertilized with NPK, manure, sewage sludge, and composts containing sewage sludge than in water percolating through control soil and soil fertilized with municipal compost. The leachate from control soil contained the lowest amounts of copper, nickel, chromium, and zinc (10.75, 21.25, 8.70, and 23.70 μg/dm3, respectively). The significantly highest concentrations of Cu and Ni were noted in the leachate from soil fertilized with manure and composts containing plant residues (sewage sludge composted with straw and compost made from municipal green waste). The greatest Cr leaching was observed in soil fertilized with compost made from non-segregated municipal waste and composted sewage sludge (96.45 and 72.12 μg/dm3, respectively). The greatest zinc leaching was noted in soil fertilized with manure and dried granular sewage sludge (48.03 and 45.40 μg/dm3, respectively). Water percolating through control soil and soil fertilized with manure had the lowest lead content (115.60 and 113.82 μg/dm3, respectively). The highest lead content was found in the leachate from soil fertilized with compost made from municipal green waste. Soil fertilization with dried granular sewage sludge increased manganese leaching over 2.5-fold (15.40 μg/dm3), compared with the control treatment. Manure-fertilized soil was characterized by the significantly lowest Mn leaching (4.77 μg/dm3).Fig. 1

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The influence of manure and composts on the leaching of heavy metals from soil was evaluated in a model lysimeter experiment under controlled conditions. Soil samples were collected from experimental fields, from 0- to 90-cm layers retaining the layout of the soil profile layers, after the second crop rotation cycle with the following plant species: potatoes, spring barley, winter rapeseed, and winter wheat. During the field experiment, 20&nbsp;t DM/ha of manure, municipal sewage sludge composted with straw (SSCS), composted sewage sludge (SSC), dried granular sewage sludge (DGSS), &ldquo;Dano&rdquo; compost made from non-segregated municipal waste (CMMW), and compost made from municipal green waste (CUGW) was applied, i.e., 10&nbsp;t DM/ha per crop rotation cycle. The concentrations (&mu;g/dm3) of heavy metals in the leachate were as follows: Cd (3.6&ndash;11.5)&thinsp;&lt;&thinsp;Mn (4.8&ndash;15.4)&thinsp;&lt;&thinsp;Cu (13.4&ndash;35.5)&thinsp;&lt;&thinsp;Zn (27.5&ndash;48.0)&thinsp;&lt;&thinsp;Cr (36.7&ndash;96.5)&thinsp;&lt;&thinsp;Ni (24.4&ndash;165.8)&thinsp;&lt;&thinsp;Pb (113.8&ndash;187.7). Soil fertilization with organic waste materials did not contaminate the percolating water with manganese or zinc, whereas the concentrations of the other metals increased to the levels characteristic of unsatisfactory water quality and poor water quality classes. The copper and nickel content of percolating water depended on the concentration of those metals introduced into the soil with organic waste materials. The concentrations of Cd in the leachate increased, whereas the concentrations of Cu and Ni decreased with increasing organic C content of organic fertilizers. The widening of the C/N ratio contributed to Mn leaching. The concentrations of Pb, Cr, and Mn in the percolating water were positively correlated with the organic C content of soil.

No MeSH data available.