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The diversity of gendered adaptation strategies to climate change of Indian farmers: A feminist intersectional approach

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ABSTRACT

This paper examines climate change adaptation and gender issues through an application of a feminist intersectional approach. This approach permits the identification of diverse adaptation responses arising from the existence of multiple and fragmented dimensions of identity (including gender) that intersect with power relations to shape situation-specific interactions between farmers and ecosystems. Based on results from contrasting research cases in Bihar and Uttarakhand, India, this paper demonstrates, inter alia, that there are geographically determined gendered preferences and adoption strategies regarding adaptation options and that these are influenced by the socio-ecological context and institutional dynamics. Intersecting identities, such as caste, wealth, age and gender, influence decisions and reveal power dynamics and negotiation within the household and the community, as well as barriers to adaptation among groups. Overall, the findings suggest that a feminist intersectional approach does appear to be useful and worth further exploration in the context of climate change adaptation. In particular, future research could benefit from more emphasis on a nuanced analysis of the intra-gender differences that shape adaptive capacity to climate change.

Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13280-016-0833-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.


Graphical visualization of the standardized coefficients that shows the effect of each explanatory variable in each of the adaptive strategies implemented in Uttarakhand. The blue dot indicates that such an effect is statistically significant. Table 1 shows more details of the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA)
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Fig4: Graphical visualization of the standardized coefficients that shows the effect of each explanatory variable in each of the adaptive strategies implemented in Uttarakhand. The blue dot indicates that such an effect is statistically significant. Table 1 shows more details of the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA)

Mentions: CCA was used to identify the underlying variables that influence the adoption of adaptation strategies in Uttarakhand (Monte Carlo permutation test, p < 0.01). The CCA revealed that two axes explained 70.7 % of the total variance of adaptation strategies: axis 1 (49.4 % of variance) showed a gradient of strategies from proactive responses (livelihood security and management of ecological functions and processes) to technological solutions, and axis 2 (21.3 % of variance) represented a gradient between the management of societal ties and knowledge as well as the management of agro-biodiversity and reactive strategies related with livelihood security (Fig. 4; Table 1).Table 1


The diversity of gendered adaptation strategies to climate change of Indian farmers: A feminist intersectional approach
Graphical visualization of the standardized coefficients that shows the effect of each explanatory variable in each of the adaptive strategies implemented in Uttarakhand. The blue dot indicates that such an effect is statistically significant. Table 1 shows more details of the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5120025&req=5

Fig4: Graphical visualization of the standardized coefficients that shows the effect of each explanatory variable in each of the adaptive strategies implemented in Uttarakhand. The blue dot indicates that such an effect is statistically significant. Table 1 shows more details of the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA)
Mentions: CCA was used to identify the underlying variables that influence the adoption of adaptation strategies in Uttarakhand (Monte Carlo permutation test, p < 0.01). The CCA revealed that two axes explained 70.7 % of the total variance of adaptation strategies: axis 1 (49.4 % of variance) showed a gradient of strategies from proactive responses (livelihood security and management of ecological functions and processes) to technological solutions, and axis 2 (21.3 % of variance) represented a gradient between the management of societal ties and knowledge as well as the management of agro-biodiversity and reactive strategies related with livelihood security (Fig. 4; Table 1).Table 1

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

This paper examines climate change adaptation and gender issues through an application of a feminist intersectional approach. This approach permits the identification of diverse adaptation responses arising from the existence of multiple and fragmented dimensions of identity (including gender) that intersect with power relations to shape situation-specific interactions between farmers and ecosystems. Based on results from contrasting research cases in Bihar and Uttarakhand, India, this paper demonstrates, inter alia, that there are geographically determined gendered preferences and adoption strategies regarding adaptation options and that these are influenced by the socio-ecological context and institutional dynamics. Intersecting identities, such as caste, wealth, age and gender, influence decisions and reveal power dynamics and negotiation within the household and the community, as well as barriers to adaptation among groups. Overall, the findings suggest that a feminist intersectional approach does appear to be useful and worth further exploration in the context of climate change adaptation. In particular, future research could benefit from more emphasis on a nuanced analysis of the intra-gender differences that shape adaptive capacity to climate change.

Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13280-016-0833-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.