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Gendered knowledge and adaptive practices: Differentiation and change in Mwanga District, Tanzania

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ABSTRACT

We examine the wider social knowledge domain that complements technical and environmental knowledge in enabling adaptive practices through two case studies in Tanzania. We are concerned with knowledge production that is shaped by gendered exclusion from the main thrusts of planned adaptation, in the practice of irrigation in a dryland village and the adoption of fast-maturing seed varieties in a highland village. The findings draw on data from a household survey, community workshops, and key informant interviews. The largest challenge to effective adaptation is a lack of access to the social networks and institutions that allocate resources needed for adaptation. Results demonstrate the social differentiation of local knowledge, and how it is entwined with adaptive practices that emerge in relation to gendered mechanisms of access. We conclude that community-based adaptation can learn from engaging the broader social knowledge base in evaluating priorities for coping with greater climate variability.

Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13280-016-0828-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.


Irrigated onion plot in Kirya village (Photo by E. E. Wangui)
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Fig3: Irrigated onion plot in Kirya village (Photo by E. E. Wangui)

Mentions: Data from Kirya village administrative offices show that the village has a total of 323 households, 135 of which rely heavily on livestock. According to long term residents of Kirya, Maasai pastoralists were the first to settle permanently in Kirya in the 1950s. They moved to Kirya for grazing purposes. They were followed by Warusha and Pare ethnic groups, who started to divert water from The Pangani River for irrigation as far back as the late 1950s. Migrants from other parts of Tanzania (including Mangio) have continued to move to Kirya to practice irrigation, making the village very ethnically diverse. Today, Kirya Village is home to over thirty different ethnic communities. Data from the village administrative offices indicate that all of the 410 ha of farmed land is under irrigation. Figure 3 shows what a typical irrigated plot in Kirya village looks like. As has been found in other parts of East Africa (Wangui 2008; Homewood et al. 2009), Maasai pastoralists in Kirya have taken up irrigated farming as a form of livelihood diversification. The results presented here are from the Emangulai B sub-village of Kirya, which is occupied only by Maasai pastoralists.Fig. 3


Gendered knowledge and adaptive practices: Differentiation and change in Mwanga District, Tanzania
Irrigated onion plot in Kirya village (Photo by E. E. Wangui)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5120021&req=5

Fig3: Irrigated onion plot in Kirya village (Photo by E. E. Wangui)
Mentions: Data from Kirya village administrative offices show that the village has a total of 323 households, 135 of which rely heavily on livestock. According to long term residents of Kirya, Maasai pastoralists were the first to settle permanently in Kirya in the 1950s. They moved to Kirya for grazing purposes. They were followed by Warusha and Pare ethnic groups, who started to divert water from The Pangani River for irrigation as far back as the late 1950s. Migrants from other parts of Tanzania (including Mangio) have continued to move to Kirya to practice irrigation, making the village very ethnically diverse. Today, Kirya Village is home to over thirty different ethnic communities. Data from the village administrative offices indicate that all of the 410 ha of farmed land is under irrigation. Figure 3 shows what a typical irrigated plot in Kirya village looks like. As has been found in other parts of East Africa (Wangui 2008; Homewood et al. 2009), Maasai pastoralists in Kirya have taken up irrigated farming as a form of livelihood diversification. The results presented here are from the Emangulai B sub-village of Kirya, which is occupied only by Maasai pastoralists.Fig. 3

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

We examine the wider social knowledge domain that complements technical and environmental knowledge in enabling adaptive practices through two case studies in Tanzania. We are concerned with knowledge production that is shaped by gendered exclusion from the main thrusts of planned adaptation, in the practice of irrigation in a dryland village and the adoption of fast-maturing seed varieties in a highland village. The findings draw on data from a household survey, community workshops, and key informant interviews. The largest challenge to effective adaptation is a lack of access to the social networks and institutions that allocate resources needed for adaptation. Results demonstrate the social differentiation of local knowledge, and how it is entwined with adaptive practices that emerge in relation to gendered mechanisms of access. We conclude that community-based adaptation can learn from engaging the broader social knowledge base in evaluating priorities for coping with greater climate variability.

Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13280-016-0828-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.