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Impact of Phosphate, Potassium, Yeast Extract, and Trace Metals on Chitosan and Metabolite Production by Mucor indicus

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ABSTRACT

In this study the effects of phosphate, potassium, yeast extract, and trace metals on the growth of Mucor indicus and chitosan, chitin, and metabolite production by the fungus were investigated. Maximum yield of chitosan (0.32 g/g cell wall) was obtained in a phosphate-free medium. Reversely, cell growth and ethanol formation by the fungus were positively affected in the presence of phosphate. In a phosphate-free medium, the highest chitosan content (0.42 g/g cell wall) and cell growth (0.66 g/g sugar) were obtained at 2.5 g/L of KOH. Potassium concentration had no significant effect on ethanol and glycerol yields. The presence of trace metals significantly increased the chitosan yield at an optimal phosphate and potassium concentration (0.50 g/g cell wall). By contrast, production of ethanol by the fungus was negatively affected (0.33 g/g sugars). A remarkable increase in chitin and decrease in chitosan were observed in the absence of yeast extract and concentrations lower than 2 g/L. The maximum chitosan yield of 51% cell wall was obtained at 5 g/L of yeast extract when the medium contained no phosphate, 2.5 g/L KOH, and 1 mL/L trace metal solution.

No MeSH data available.


Effect of trace metals at different levels of KOH (without H3PO4) on GlcN (g/g AIM) (black bars) and GlcNAc yields (g/g AIM) (white bars): (a) cultures without trace metals; (b) cultures including trace metals. Error bars represent the ± standard deviation (SD) of values obtained from independent experiments performed in triplicate. Average SD: p < 0.015.
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ijms-17-01429-f003: Effect of trace metals at different levels of KOH (without H3PO4) on GlcN (g/g AIM) (black bars) and GlcNAc yields (g/g AIM) (white bars): (a) cultures without trace metals; (b) cultures including trace metals. Error bars represent the ± standard deviation (SD) of values obtained from independent experiments performed in triplicate. Average SD: p < 0.015.

Mentions: A 26% increase was observed in AIM yield by adding trace metals to culture containing 2.5 g/L potassium hydroxide. However, trace metals did affect the AIM yield at other KOH concentrations (Table 2). Adding a trace metals solution to the culture medium increased glucosamine in the fungal cell wall. In the presence of trace metals, GlcN yield was increased by 42%, 33%, 21%, and 21% at KOH concentrations of 0, 1.44, 2, and 2.5 g/L, respectively (Figure 3). According to Figure 3, there was no obvious trend in the changes of GlcNAc content. Furthermore, no significant effect on phosphate yield was observed. The total chitosan and chitin of the cell wall were remarkably higher in the presence of trace metals (58–64 g/g AIM) (Table 2).


Impact of Phosphate, Potassium, Yeast Extract, and Trace Metals on Chitosan and Metabolite Production by Mucor indicus
Effect of trace metals at different levels of KOH (without H3PO4) on GlcN (g/g AIM) (black bars) and GlcNAc yields (g/g AIM) (white bars): (a) cultures without trace metals; (b) cultures including trace metals. Error bars represent the ± standard deviation (SD) of values obtained from independent experiments performed in triplicate. Average SD: p < 0.015.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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ijms-17-01429-f003: Effect of trace metals at different levels of KOH (without H3PO4) on GlcN (g/g AIM) (black bars) and GlcNAc yields (g/g AIM) (white bars): (a) cultures without trace metals; (b) cultures including trace metals. Error bars represent the ± standard deviation (SD) of values obtained from independent experiments performed in triplicate. Average SD: p < 0.015.
Mentions: A 26% increase was observed in AIM yield by adding trace metals to culture containing 2.5 g/L potassium hydroxide. However, trace metals did affect the AIM yield at other KOH concentrations (Table 2). Adding a trace metals solution to the culture medium increased glucosamine in the fungal cell wall. In the presence of trace metals, GlcN yield was increased by 42%, 33%, 21%, and 21% at KOH concentrations of 0, 1.44, 2, and 2.5 g/L, respectively (Figure 3). According to Figure 3, there was no obvious trend in the changes of GlcNAc content. Furthermore, no significant effect on phosphate yield was observed. The total chitosan and chitin of the cell wall were remarkably higher in the presence of trace metals (58–64 g/g AIM) (Table 2).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

In this study the effects of phosphate, potassium, yeast extract, and trace metals on the growth of Mucor indicus and chitosan, chitin, and metabolite production by the fungus were investigated. Maximum yield of chitosan (0.32 g/g cell wall) was obtained in a phosphate-free medium. Reversely, cell growth and ethanol formation by the fungus were positively affected in the presence of phosphate. In a phosphate-free medium, the highest chitosan content (0.42 g/g cell wall) and cell growth (0.66 g/g sugar) were obtained at 2.5 g/L of KOH. Potassium concentration had no significant effect on ethanol and glycerol yields. The presence of trace metals significantly increased the chitosan yield at an optimal phosphate and potassium concentration (0.50 g/g cell wall). By contrast, production of ethanol by the fungus was negatively affected (0.33 g/g sugars). A remarkable increase in chitin and decrease in chitosan were observed in the absence of yeast extract and concentrations lower than 2 g/L. The maximum chitosan yield of 51% cell wall was obtained at 5 g/L of yeast extract when the medium contained no phosphate, 2.5 g/L KOH, and 1 mL/L trace metal solution.

No MeSH data available.