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Impact of Phosphate, Potassium, Yeast Extract, and Trace Metals on Chitosan and Metabolite Production by Mucor indicus

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ABSTRACT

In this study the effects of phosphate, potassium, yeast extract, and trace metals on the growth of Mucor indicus and chitosan, chitin, and metabolite production by the fungus were investigated. Maximum yield of chitosan (0.32 g/g cell wall) was obtained in a phosphate-free medium. Reversely, cell growth and ethanol formation by the fungus were positively affected in the presence of phosphate. In a phosphate-free medium, the highest chitosan content (0.42 g/g cell wall) and cell growth (0.66 g/g sugar) were obtained at 2.5 g/L of KOH. Potassium concentration had no significant effect on ethanol and glycerol yields. The presence of trace metals significantly increased the chitosan yield at an optimal phosphate and potassium concentration (0.50 g/g cell wall). By contrast, production of ethanol by the fungus was negatively affected (0.33 g/g sugars). A remarkable increase in chitin and decrease in chitosan were observed in the absence of yeast extract and concentrations lower than 2 g/L. The maximum chitosan yield of 51% cell wall was obtained at 5 g/L of yeast extract when the medium contained no phosphate, 2.5 g/L KOH, and 1 mL/L trace metal solution.

No MeSH data available.


Effect of different phosphate concentration on glucosamine (GlcN) yield (g/g alkali-insoluble material (AIM)) (black bars) and N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) yield (g/g AIM) (white bars). Error bars represent the ± standard deviation (SD) of values obtained from independent experiments performed in triplicate. Average SD: p = 0.00 (black bars); p < 0.02 (white bars).
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ijms-17-01429-f001: Effect of different phosphate concentration on glucosamine (GlcN) yield (g/g alkali-insoluble material (AIM)) (black bars) and N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) yield (g/g AIM) (white bars). Error bars represent the ± standard deviation (SD) of values obtained from independent experiments performed in triplicate. Average SD: p = 0.00 (black bars); p < 0.02 (white bars).

Mentions: As shown in Figure 1, the highest glucosamine (GlcN) and N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) yields (0.32 and 0.23 g/g AIM, respectively) were obtained in the medium with no phosphoric acid. At 0.25 g/L H3PO4, a considerable decrease in GlcN yield (62%) was observed. The yield continually as decreased at higher phosphoric acid levels such that it dropped to 0.04 g/g AIM at 1.5 g/L phosphoric acid. Unexpectedly, the GlcN concentration increased to 0.14 g/g AIM at 2.5 g/L phosphoric acid, while it decreased to 0.04 g/g AIM at 5 g/L phosphoric acid. GlcN is a major structural component of chitosan and, therefore, the solution without H3PO4 was the most suitable culture medium for chitosan production. Although increasing the phosphoric acid concentration was generally accompanied by a reduction in GlcNAc content, a lower variation in the yield of this component was observed compared to that of GlcN (Figure 1).


Impact of Phosphate, Potassium, Yeast Extract, and Trace Metals on Chitosan and Metabolite Production by Mucor indicus
Effect of different phosphate concentration on glucosamine (GlcN) yield (g/g alkali-insoluble material (AIM)) (black bars) and N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) yield (g/g AIM) (white bars). Error bars represent the ± standard deviation (SD) of values obtained from independent experiments performed in triplicate. Average SD: p = 0.00 (black bars); p < 0.02 (white bars).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037708&req=5

ijms-17-01429-f001: Effect of different phosphate concentration on glucosamine (GlcN) yield (g/g alkali-insoluble material (AIM)) (black bars) and N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) yield (g/g AIM) (white bars). Error bars represent the ± standard deviation (SD) of values obtained from independent experiments performed in triplicate. Average SD: p = 0.00 (black bars); p < 0.02 (white bars).
Mentions: As shown in Figure 1, the highest glucosamine (GlcN) and N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) yields (0.32 and 0.23 g/g AIM, respectively) were obtained in the medium with no phosphoric acid. At 0.25 g/L H3PO4, a considerable decrease in GlcN yield (62%) was observed. The yield continually as decreased at higher phosphoric acid levels such that it dropped to 0.04 g/g AIM at 1.5 g/L phosphoric acid. Unexpectedly, the GlcN concentration increased to 0.14 g/g AIM at 2.5 g/L phosphoric acid, while it decreased to 0.04 g/g AIM at 5 g/L phosphoric acid. GlcN is a major structural component of chitosan and, therefore, the solution without H3PO4 was the most suitable culture medium for chitosan production. Although increasing the phosphoric acid concentration was generally accompanied by a reduction in GlcNAc content, a lower variation in the yield of this component was observed compared to that of GlcN (Figure 1).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

In this study the effects of phosphate, potassium, yeast extract, and trace metals on the growth of Mucor indicus and chitosan, chitin, and metabolite production by the fungus were investigated. Maximum yield of chitosan (0.32 g/g cell wall) was obtained in a phosphate-free medium. Reversely, cell growth and ethanol formation by the fungus were positively affected in the presence of phosphate. In a phosphate-free medium, the highest chitosan content (0.42 g/g cell wall) and cell growth (0.66 g/g sugar) were obtained at 2.5 g/L of KOH. Potassium concentration had no significant effect on ethanol and glycerol yields. The presence of trace metals significantly increased the chitosan yield at an optimal phosphate and potassium concentration (0.50 g/g cell wall). By contrast, production of ethanol by the fungus was negatively affected (0.33 g/g sugars). A remarkable increase in chitin and decrease in chitosan were observed in the absence of yeast extract and concentrations lower than 2 g/L. The maximum chitosan yield of 51% cell wall was obtained at 5 g/L of yeast extract when the medium contained no phosphate, 2.5 g/L KOH, and 1 mL/L trace metal solution.

No MeSH data available.