Limits...
Chemotactic Activity of Cyclophilin A in the Skin Mucus of Yellow Catfish ( Pelteobagrus fulvidraco ) and Its Active Site for Chemotaxis

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Fish skin mucus is a dynamic barrier for invading pathogens with a variety of anti-microbial enzymes, including cyclophilin A (CypA), a multi-functional protein with peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) activity. Beside various other immunological functions, CypA induces leucocytes migration in vitro in teleost. In the current study, we have discovered several novel immune-relevant proteins in yellow catfish skin mucus by mass spectrometry (MS). The CypA present among them was further detected by Western blot. Moreover, the CypA present in the skin mucus displayed strong chemotactic activity for yellow catfish leucocytes. Interestingly, asparagine (like arginine in mammals) at position 69 was the critical site in yellow catfish CypA involved in leucocyte attraction. These novel efforts do not only highlight the enzymatic texture of skin mucus, but signify CypA to be targeted for anti-inflammatory therapeutics.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparative chemotactic activity of various concentrations of yellow catfish skin mucus. The black bar shows the chemotactic activity of various concentrations of yellow catfish skin mucus for head kidney leucocytes of yellow catfish. The white bar shows the chemotactic activity of the skin mucus when the CypA was blocked by CypA-specific antibodies. The doted bar indicates the chemotactic activity of skin mucus plus serum (negative control). The chemotactic activity is shown as the chemotactic index. Data are expressed as the means ± SD, (n = 3) of three fish. Bars with “**” are highly significantly different (p < 0.01), while bars with “***” are very highly significantly different (p < 0.001).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037701&req=5

ijms-17-01422-f002: Comparative chemotactic activity of various concentrations of yellow catfish skin mucus. The black bar shows the chemotactic activity of various concentrations of yellow catfish skin mucus for head kidney leucocytes of yellow catfish. The white bar shows the chemotactic activity of the skin mucus when the CypA was blocked by CypA-specific antibodies. The doted bar indicates the chemotactic activity of skin mucus plus serum (negative control). The chemotactic activity is shown as the chemotactic index. Data are expressed as the means ± SD, (n = 3) of three fish. Bars with “**” are highly significantly different (p < 0.01), while bars with “***” are very highly significantly different (p < 0.001).

Mentions: The chemotactic activity of various concentrations of the skin mucus is shown in Figure 2. The activity was very low when the concentration of mucus was 0.001% with the chemotactic index of 1.43, while it became significantly higher as the concentration of mucus raised to 1% and then 10% with chemotactic indexes of 3.83 and 5.35, respectively. Overall, the chemotaxis was strongly concentration-dependent as there were significant differences among the lower and higher and highest concentrations (Figure 2). However, the activity was significantly reduced after the addition of anti-CypA antibodies when compared with the negative control (rabbit serum plus skin mucus). After blocking CypA with antibodies in the mucus, the activity in the 0.001% group was 1.26, which was decreased gradually and was 1.18 and 1.07 in the 1% and 10% mucus concentration groups. However, the activity in the negative control group (rabbit serum plus mucus) was 1.6 in 0.001%, which rose to 3.9 in the 1% and 5.2 in the 10% concentration groups of skin mucus. All of these activities were significantly higher than the group treated with antibodies. This result suggests that the higher activity is due to CypA present in the mucus, as the rabbit serum has no effect on leukocyte migration (Figure 2).


Chemotactic Activity of Cyclophilin A in the Skin Mucus of Yellow Catfish ( Pelteobagrus fulvidraco ) and Its Active Site for Chemotaxis
Comparative chemotactic activity of various concentrations of yellow catfish skin mucus. The black bar shows the chemotactic activity of various concentrations of yellow catfish skin mucus for head kidney leucocytes of yellow catfish. The white bar shows the chemotactic activity of the skin mucus when the CypA was blocked by CypA-specific antibodies. The doted bar indicates the chemotactic activity of skin mucus plus serum (negative control). The chemotactic activity is shown as the chemotactic index. Data are expressed as the means ± SD, (n = 3) of three fish. Bars with “**” are highly significantly different (p < 0.01), while bars with “***” are very highly significantly different (p < 0.001).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037701&req=5

ijms-17-01422-f002: Comparative chemotactic activity of various concentrations of yellow catfish skin mucus. The black bar shows the chemotactic activity of various concentrations of yellow catfish skin mucus for head kidney leucocytes of yellow catfish. The white bar shows the chemotactic activity of the skin mucus when the CypA was blocked by CypA-specific antibodies. The doted bar indicates the chemotactic activity of skin mucus plus serum (negative control). The chemotactic activity is shown as the chemotactic index. Data are expressed as the means ± SD, (n = 3) of three fish. Bars with “**” are highly significantly different (p < 0.01), while bars with “***” are very highly significantly different (p < 0.001).
Mentions: The chemotactic activity of various concentrations of the skin mucus is shown in Figure 2. The activity was very low when the concentration of mucus was 0.001% with the chemotactic index of 1.43, while it became significantly higher as the concentration of mucus raised to 1% and then 10% with chemotactic indexes of 3.83 and 5.35, respectively. Overall, the chemotaxis was strongly concentration-dependent as there were significant differences among the lower and higher and highest concentrations (Figure 2). However, the activity was significantly reduced after the addition of anti-CypA antibodies when compared with the negative control (rabbit serum plus skin mucus). After blocking CypA with antibodies in the mucus, the activity in the 0.001% group was 1.26, which was decreased gradually and was 1.18 and 1.07 in the 1% and 10% mucus concentration groups. However, the activity in the negative control group (rabbit serum plus mucus) was 1.6 in 0.001%, which rose to 3.9 in the 1% and 5.2 in the 10% concentration groups of skin mucus. All of these activities were significantly higher than the group treated with antibodies. This result suggests that the higher activity is due to CypA present in the mucus, as the rabbit serum has no effect on leukocyte migration (Figure 2).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Fish skin mucus is a dynamic barrier for invading pathogens with a variety of anti-microbial enzymes, including cyclophilin A (CypA), a multi-functional protein with peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) activity. Beside various other immunological functions, CypA induces leucocytes migration in vitro in teleost. In the current study, we have discovered several novel immune-relevant proteins in yellow catfish skin mucus by mass spectrometry (MS). The CypA present among them was further detected by Western blot. Moreover, the CypA present in the skin mucus displayed strong chemotactic activity for yellow catfish leucocytes. Interestingly, asparagine (like arginine in mammals) at position 69 was the critical site in yellow catfish CypA involved in leucocyte attraction. These novel efforts do not only highlight the enzymatic texture of skin mucus, but signify CypA to be targeted for anti-inflammatory therapeutics.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus