Limits...
Extraction, Chemical Composition, and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil of Bitter Almond

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The essential oil from the powder residual of dried bitter almond, a novel and environmentally-friendly fungicide, was successfully extracted in a 0.7% yield by hydro-distillation under optimized conditions. The chemical composition of bitter almond essential oil (BAEO) was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Twenty-one different components representing 99.90% of the total essential oil were identified, of which benzaldehyde (62.52%), benzoic acid (14.80%), and hexadecane (3.97%) were the most abundant components. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of BAEO against common plant pathogenic fungi were evaluated by the mycelium linear growth rate method and pot test, respectively. It was documented that 1 mg/mL of BAEO could variously inhibit all tested pathogenic fungi with the inhibition rates of 44.8%~100%. Among the tested 19 strains of fungi, the median effective concentration (EC50) values of BAEO against Alternaria brassicae and Alternaria solani were only 50.2 and 103.2 μg/mL, respectively, which were higher than those of other fungi. The in vivo antifungal activity of BAEO against Gloeosporium orbiculare was much higher than Blumeria graminis. The protective efficacy for the former was up to 98.07% at 10 mg/mL and the treatment efficacy was 93.41% at 12 mg/mL. The above results indicated that BAEO has the great potential to be developed as a botanical and agricultural fungicide.

No MeSH data available.


Effect of treatment time on the antifungal activity of BAEO against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037700&req=5

ijms-17-01421-f002: Effect of treatment time on the antifungal activity of BAEO against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.

Mentions: Generally speaking, except for the results of 0.5 mg/mL of BAEO against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, the inhibition rates of BAEO against two tested fungi did not decrease at all and always maintained 100% inhibition rates even at 72 h post-treatment (Table 5, Figure 2 and Figure 3). Although, at 0.5 mg/mL, the activities of BAEO against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum were a little lower than those of kresoxim-methyl, the activities of BAEO at 1.0 mg/mL were completely opposite. Compared with the activities for the tested fungi, the activities for Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum gradually reduced with the prolongation of time, whereas the activities for Alternariasolani dramatically increased under the same circumstances. Particularly, whether for Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum or for Alternariasolani, the efficacy of BAEO at 1.0 mg/mL was much better than kresoxim-methyl—even 72 h later, it was still up to 100%. Compared with the antifungal activity of the standard drug against Alternariasolani, the antifungal activity of BAEO was sustained at 100% from the beginning of the trail to the end. It was confirmed that, in most cases, the efficacy of BAEO was much higher than kresoxim-methyl. Indeed, the extension of treatment time from 24 h to 72 h did not affect the efficacy of BAEO, whereas the antifungal activity of kresoxim-methyl quickly decreased.


Extraction, Chemical Composition, and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil of Bitter Almond
Effect of treatment time on the antifungal activity of BAEO against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037700&req=5

ijms-17-01421-f002: Effect of treatment time on the antifungal activity of BAEO against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.
Mentions: Generally speaking, except for the results of 0.5 mg/mL of BAEO against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, the inhibition rates of BAEO against two tested fungi did not decrease at all and always maintained 100% inhibition rates even at 72 h post-treatment (Table 5, Figure 2 and Figure 3). Although, at 0.5 mg/mL, the activities of BAEO against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum were a little lower than those of kresoxim-methyl, the activities of BAEO at 1.0 mg/mL were completely opposite. Compared with the activities for the tested fungi, the activities for Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum gradually reduced with the prolongation of time, whereas the activities for Alternariasolani dramatically increased under the same circumstances. Particularly, whether for Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum or for Alternariasolani, the efficacy of BAEO at 1.0 mg/mL was much better than kresoxim-methyl—even 72 h later, it was still up to 100%. Compared with the antifungal activity of the standard drug against Alternariasolani, the antifungal activity of BAEO was sustained at 100% from the beginning of the trail to the end. It was confirmed that, in most cases, the efficacy of BAEO was much higher than kresoxim-methyl. Indeed, the extension of treatment time from 24 h to 72 h did not affect the efficacy of BAEO, whereas the antifungal activity of kresoxim-methyl quickly decreased.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The essential oil from the powder residual of dried bitter almond, a novel and environmentally-friendly fungicide, was successfully extracted in a 0.7% yield by hydro-distillation under optimized conditions. The chemical composition of bitter almond essential oil (BAEO) was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Twenty-one different components representing 99.90% of the total essential oil were identified, of which benzaldehyde (62.52%), benzoic acid (14.80%), and hexadecane (3.97%) were the most abundant components. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of BAEO against common plant pathogenic fungi were evaluated by the mycelium linear growth rate method and pot test, respectively. It was documented that 1 mg/mL of BAEO could variously inhibit all tested pathogenic fungi with the inhibition rates of 44.8%~100%. Among the tested 19 strains of fungi, the median effective concentration (EC50) values of BAEO against Alternaria brassicae and Alternaria solani were only 50.2 and 103.2 μg/mL, respectively, which were higher than those of other fungi. The in vivo antifungal activity of BAEO against Gloeosporium orbiculare was much higher than Blumeria graminis. The protective efficacy for the former was up to 98.07% at 10 mg/mL and the treatment efficacy was 93.41% at 12 mg/mL. The above results indicated that BAEO has the great potential to be developed as a botanical and agricultural fungicide.

No MeSH data available.