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Sanguinaria canadensis: Traditional Medicine, Phytochemical Composition, Biological Activities and Current Uses

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ABSTRACT

Sanguinaria canadensis, also known as bloodroot, is a traditional medicine used by Native Americans to treat a diverse range of clinical conditions. The plants rhizome contains several alkaloids that individually target multiple molecular processes. These bioactive compounds, mechanistically correlate with the plant’s history of ethnobotanical use. Despite their identification over 50 years ago, the alkaloids of S. canadensis have not been developed into successful therapeutic agents. Instead, they have been associated with clinical toxicities ranging from mouthwash induced leukoplakia to cancer salve necrosis and treatment failure. This review explores the historical use of S. canadensis, the molecular actions of the benzophenanthridine and protopin alkaloids it contains, and explores natural alkaloid variation as a possible rationale for the inconsistent efficacy and toxicities encountered by S.canadensis therapies. Current veterinary and medicinal uses of the plant are studied with an assessment of obstacles to the pharmaceutical development of S. canadensis alkaloid based therapeutics.

No MeSH data available.


The cellular targets of sanguinarine. This figure highlights the variety of cellular organelles and molecular processes disrupted by sanguinarine. The only sanguinarine molecules (purple dots) in the diagram are represented in the DNA Intercalation image.
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ijms-17-01414-f003: The cellular targets of sanguinarine. This figure highlights the variety of cellular organelles and molecular processes disrupted by sanguinarine. The only sanguinarine molecules (purple dots) in the diagram are represented in the DNA Intercalation image.

Mentions: Tumor growth facilitated by neovascularization is another area targeted by sanguinarine [146,147]. At nanomolar concentrations, it inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) induced endothelial cell migration, sprouting and survival [148,149]. Sanguinarine targets a range of cellular structures (Figure 3) and molecular processes. The contribution of each mechanism to the alkaloid’s cytotoxicity and anticancer action is not clearly understood.


Sanguinaria canadensis: Traditional Medicine, Phytochemical Composition, Biological Activities and Current Uses
The cellular targets of sanguinarine. This figure highlights the variety of cellular organelles and molecular processes disrupted by sanguinarine. The only sanguinarine molecules (purple dots) in the diagram are represented in the DNA Intercalation image.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5037693&req=5

ijms-17-01414-f003: The cellular targets of sanguinarine. This figure highlights the variety of cellular organelles and molecular processes disrupted by sanguinarine. The only sanguinarine molecules (purple dots) in the diagram are represented in the DNA Intercalation image.
Mentions: Tumor growth facilitated by neovascularization is another area targeted by sanguinarine [146,147]. At nanomolar concentrations, it inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) induced endothelial cell migration, sprouting and survival [148,149]. Sanguinarine targets a range of cellular structures (Figure 3) and molecular processes. The contribution of each mechanism to the alkaloid’s cytotoxicity and anticancer action is not clearly understood.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Sanguinaria canadensis, also known as bloodroot, is a traditional medicine used by Native Americans to treat a diverse range of clinical conditions. The plants rhizome contains several alkaloids that individually target multiple molecular processes. These bioactive compounds, mechanistically correlate with the plant’s history of ethnobotanical use. Despite their identification over 50 years ago, the alkaloids of S. canadensis have not been developed into successful therapeutic agents. Instead, they have been associated with clinical toxicities ranging from mouthwash induced leukoplakia to cancer salve necrosis and treatment failure. This review explores the historical use of S. canadensis, the molecular actions of the benzophenanthridine and protopin alkaloids it contains, and explores natural alkaloid variation as a possible rationale for the inconsistent efficacy and toxicities encountered by S.canadensis therapies. Current veterinary and medicinal uses of the plant are studied with an assessment of obstacles to the pharmaceutical development of S. canadensis alkaloid based therapeutics.

No MeSH data available.